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Volume 5, Year 2014, Issue 4, October-December

Trends in hybrid pixel detectors for X-ray imaging using deep submicron VLSI technology
Author:
Aleksandra Drozd, Tadeusz Satława
Downloads:
29 x
 

Abstract: The article covers the latest developments in pixel detectors used for X-ray imaging as well as the description of the practical solution – a multichannel integrated circuit dedicated to X-ray imaging. In general introduction a wide range of pixel detector applications is presented. The main part focuses on the challenges and new solutions for the field of X-ray imaging, including 3D integration, silicon-on-insulator and submicron technologies. Since minimization of a pixel size together with implementing more functionality are important issues in the detectors’ and integrated circuits’ design, the aspects of channel-to-channel uniformity and additional effects like charge sharing between pixels are taken into consideration. In the last section, the Authors present the application specific integrated circuit designed in 40 nm technology dedicated to X-ray detection and future prospects are discussed.

Keywords: X-ray imaging, hybrid pixel detectors, 3D technologies, SOI technologies

Area: Biomedical Engineering

Conceptual Prototype of USB Wireless Adapter
Author:
Wojciech Wodo, Lucjan Hanzlik, Konrad Zawada
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12 x
 

Abstract: In this paper we investigate the issue of wireless USB hubs. Our aim is to adapt any USB device to its wireless version. We propose a minimized mobile hardware solution in the form of an electronic device and software allowing remote usage of peripherals such as keyboards, mice, USB sticks, etc. On the U.S. market similar solutions are known, but they are based on a many-to-one communication model and their design does not encourage mobility. With these designs peripheral devices still have one common point (in this case a hub instead of a computer). Additionally, hubs need external power supplies, thus they are connected to the grid by cable. Our solution is based on a one-to-one communication model and have a few key advantages for mobility. First, there is the possibility of minimizing the device itself and shortening the wire of the corresponding peripheral. Furthermore power consumption of the transmitter is much lower, and therefore there is no need to use an external power supply.

Keywords: USB, wireless, Wi-Fi, communication, hub

Area: Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Applying Hand Gesture Recognition with Time-of-Flight Camera for 3D Medical Data Analysis
Author:
Filip Malawski
Downloads:
19 x
 

Abstract: This paper describes a human-computer interface based on hand gesture recognition, intended for analysis of 3D medical data. The gestures are designed to minimize the required muscle tension when using the system. Gesture recognition is based on a 3D sensor. Depth maps are acquired by a time-of-flight camera, designed specifically for hand gestures recognition. The depth images are denoised and segmented to right and left hand. The contours of the hands are found and a modified Shape Context descriptor is utilized for each hand, providing a set of features, which are employed to train and test various classifiers. Naive Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers are utilized, with search of optimal parameters using cross-validation. The best accuracy (95%) is achieved with the Support Vector Machine classifier. The gestures are mapped to various controls of a 3D medical visualization module. Two visualization methods are employed - isosurface and cut-planes. The left hand is assigned to switching between different control modes and the right hand gestures are corresponding to controlling various properties in each mode. The system is convenient to use and runs in real-time on a typical PC machine.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, hand gesture recognition, time-of-flight camera

Area: Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Top-view People Counting in Public Transportation using Kinect
Author:
Filip Malawski
Downloads:
16 x
 

Abstract: This article describes a method for people counting in public transportation. In this particular scenario, various body poses corresponding to holding handrails must be accounted for. Kinect sensor mounted vertically has been employed to acquire a database of images of 1-5 persons, with and without body poses of holding a handrail. An algorithm has been devised for robust people counting, consisting of multiple steps. The handrails are removed by substituting an average image of the handrails from the image with persons holding a handrail. The image is then processed in blocks in order to find potential local maxima, which are subsequently verified to find head candidates. Finally, non-head objects are filtered out, based on the ratio of pixels with similar and near-zero value, in the neighbourhood of the maxima. The method has an average accuracy of 91% and has proved to handle well the handrails in the depth maps.

Keywords: people counting, Kinect, public transportation

Area: Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Feature-Based Procedural Generation of Adjustable Game Content
Author:
Izabella Antoniuk, Przemysław Rokita
Downloads:
9 x
 

Abstract: This paper describes a method, for procedural content generation, allowing alteration of object during generation process, as well as further modifications of object after it was created. Most of existing algorithms either require adjustment of unintuitive data and parameters, or don’t allow for further alteration of created object. Such outcomes are unsatisfactory for most of game designers. We offer our solution for this problem and identify some possible future directions of our research.

Keywords: computer games, procedural content generation

Area: Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

The environmental benefits of the architectural optimization of a building
Author:
Michał Pierzchalski
Downloads:
15 x
 

Abstract: The article presents the pro-ecological consequences of the architectural optimization of the building. The author has conducted an environmental analysis taking into consideration accumulated energy and accumulated CO2 emissions of five single-family buildings, whose architectural forms were slighly different. The buildings under analysis were: a reference, simple building without any additional elements and a buildings with sunscreens (canopies, roller blinds and overhang of the building). The environmental impacts of various solutions were compared.

Keywords: sustainable development, life cycle assessment, architectural optimization

Area: Civil Engineering, Urban Planning and Architecture

Development of high-rise buildings in Europe in the 20th and 21st centuries
Author:
Joanna Pietrzak
Downloads:
19 x
 

Abstract: Europe cities with their dense historic fabrics greeted skyscrapers with a great deal of scepticism. It was not until the 1950s that Europe began to construct buildings taller than 100 meters. By 2013, skyscrapers had been constructed in over 100 European cities located in 30 different countries, and the trend towards the expansion of high-rise construction continues. Nonetheless, rarely does a comprehensive study of the development of the European high-rise buildings take place. The aim of the study is to fill in the gaps in this knowledge. In addition, the analyses aim at identifying the dominant type of high-rise buildings. Research shows that a record number of skyscrapers were completed in the first decade of the 21st century and it appears that this record might be surpassed in the next. Although Europe is currently constructing its first two supertall skyscrapers, European buildings generally do not exceed 250 meters. Today, the majority of European skyscrapers are office buildings; although in the 21st century there has been an increasingly significant tendency to equalize the quantity of residential and office buildings. Moreover, the highest European skyscrapers are designed as mixed-use buildings. Significant development continues in leading centres of high-rise office construction located in the area between the United Kingdom and Italy, in Spain, and in Central and Eastern Europe. The majority of European office towers have been built in capitals. The key centres in the ongoing office skyscrapers’ development remain: Paris, Frankfurt and London.

Keywords: European high-rise buildings, office towers, development

Area: Civil Engineering, Urban Planning and Architecture

Comparison of point clouds captured with terrestrial laser scanners with different technical characteristic
Author:
Janina Zaczek-Peplinska, Maria Elżbieta Kowalska
Downloads:
15 x
 

Abstract: Terrestrial Laser Scanners come with different technical parameters like the wavelength (laser colour), range or even the distance measuring method. Within this work the surface of a large-scale concrete – Rożnów Dam -structure was captured by three different Terrestrial Laser Scanners with different technical parameters - Leica C10, Riegl VZ -400 and the Z+F Imager 5010. The captured three dimensional point clouds were further evaluated by analysing the parameters of a fitted plane in each case that has been derived with the help of a least squares adjustment. This paper describes different analysis of registered point clouds. Presented results indicate significant differences between representations of scanned surface, measured in the same weather conditions, using three different scanner models. Analysis revealed differences in “grain” and texture of obtained visualization, as well as registered data completeness. These differences might play a significant role during conducting analysis of an engineering object changes and deformations based on point clouds registered in different time periods.

Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning, fitting plane, least square method

Area: Civil Engineering, Urban Planning and Architecture

Museum Projects of the Star-Architects
Author:
Andrzej Klimek
Downloads:
15 x
 

Abstract: In the 1980’s the amount of new museum constructions started raising suddenly and the most famous pre-existing institutions began to create its external branches in distant locations. Crowning achievement of this process was a grand opening of Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao on the 18th of October 1997, which not only determined the conventional direction of urban renewal in the de-industrialized cities, but also started a new era in the history of a stardom in architecture, formally opening the age of its global range. The most representative cases of the aforementioned phenomena will be presented and discussed. Nowadays many star-architects are specialized in designing the museums, Frank Gehry and Daniel Libeskind being the most notable ones, and almost every member of this elite has at least one significant constructed object of that function in his or her portfolio. The reason of such a synergy can be found in the facts that they justify such feature as signature design, central urban locations predestine the buildings to become landmarks and their function giving a wide margin in shaping the internal spaces allows architects an artistic treatment of its form. This is a probable explanation why the museum constructions are certainly not the most financially lucrative but even though the most prestigious ones. The paper aims to trace the evolution of world famous museums in the late 20th century and the beginning of 21st century, paying special attention to the role of star architecture in the processes of transformation and to the emergence of the designers elite itself.

Keywords: star-architecture, museum networks, museum brands, museum extensions, museum complexes

Area: Civil Engineering, Urban Planning and Architecture

 
 
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