Volume 5, Year 2014, Issue 2, April-June
Abstract: This paper describes the design and the basic implementation of a Semantic Support System (SSS) for Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) operations. The system is intended for use by rescue teams equipped with mobile robots. The goal of the work is to provide the rescue team with a global operational picture that ensures proper information availability. The core of the system is a semantic model of the environment based on Qualitative Spatio-Temporal Representation and Reasoning (QSTRR) framework. Thus, the ontology of the semantic model is described. The ontology is based on Humanitarian Data Model enhanced by the robot`s information. SSS is designed to work with multiple data sources: Geographic Information System (GIS), 3D point clouds, camera images etc. The article describes,as an example, the results of building the semantic model from 3D point clouds. An example of qualitative reasoning based on the semantic model is shown.
Keywords: USAR, semantic mapping, ontology, qualitative reasoning
Area: Mechanics, Automation and Robotics
Abstract: This work studied the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration on the polypropylene membranes morphology. Polypropylene membranes were modified with argon plasma and then immersed in PEG solution with various concentration between 50-80%. Changes of membranes morphology were observed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.
Keywords: membrane modification, polyethylene glycol, polypropylene membrane
Area: Nanotechnologies and Materials
Abstract: The authors report a new construction of a heater, which can be applied in Lab-on-a-chip systems. The heater was fabricated on a ceramic plate as a solid support. A commercially available paste DuPont 5091D with positive temperature coefficient (PTC) was used as a resistive material. Next, metallic conductors were created using gold sputtering in argon enhanced plasma environment. Finally, the gold layers were bonded with connection wires. The developed heater can be integrated with microsystems dedicated for bioanalysis, enzymatic reactions and cell cultures.
Keywords: heater, microsystem, Lab-on-a-chip, PTC
Area: Chemistry and Pharmacy
Abstract: Elevated temperature is known to be the most crucial factor influencing betanin integrity during food processing and storage. Nevertheless, certain chelating agents or antioxidants, such as acetic acid, may act as stabilizers. Therefore, the effect of citric acid on the stability of betanin – basic betacyanin – was investigated during the heating experiments in water as well as 50% and 95% (v/v) aqueous-organic solutions of methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. The presence of citric acid in tested solutions affects betanin stability, especially in the 95 % solutions, in which the stabilizing effect of this compound is significantly higher than in aqueous solutions. However, some decrease of retention in 50% methanol was also observed. The main products of betanin thermal degradation in aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions were compounds characterized by absorption bands around the wavelength at 420 nm.
Keywords: betanin, betacyanins, citric acid, Beta vulgaris L.
Area: Chemistry and Pharmacy
Abstract: The Global Environmental Multiscale model (GEM) was evaluated against satellite observations and measurements from synoptic stations. The computational grid was set up in the global variable mode with the resolution of ~25 km over Central Europe. Model evaluation was performed over Central Europe within a window of 43-56°N latitude and 10-25°E longitude. Surface temperature forecasts were compared with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature product. Air temperature measured at the height of 2 metres was obtained from about 480 synoptic stations from 13 Central Europe countries. Air temperature measurements collected at 9 UTC and 12 UTC during five days (31 January, 2 February, 3 March, 27 April and 18 June 2012) was compared with the GEM model results. Evaluation showed good agreement between modelled and observed data. In case of air temperature, the averaged value of the Mean Bias Error (MBE) was -0.42, the averaged Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Gross Errors (MAGE) were 3.21 and 2.32, respectively. Land surface temperature comparisons gave results of -2.01; 3.91 and 3.24 of the (MBE), (RMSE), and (MAGE), respectively. Also, correlation of derived modelling errors between surface temperature and air temperature are discussed. In each case the correlation coefficient was positive. The highest value (0.70) was obtained for periods when surface – atmosphere radiative exchange processes were dominant.
Keywords: MODIS; surface temperature; model evaluation
Area: Environmental Sciences
Abstract: The effect of cleaning bath – sodium dodecyl sulphate solution on the surface structure of the polymer membrane used during nanofiltration of concentrated salt solutions have been presented in this paper. It was found that the use of the cleaning bath with sodium dodecyl sulphate caused a significant reduction in the separation and permeability possibilities of tested membrane.
Keywords: nanofiltration membrane, concentrated salt solution, anionic surfactant, scaling
Area: Environmental Sciences
Abstract: Mercury emission field measurements were conducted for two types of coal from Polish mines. Total mercury content were evaluated in coal and ash on mercury analyzer atomic absorption spectrometer AMA 254. Obtained result shows that brown coal contains more mercury compared to hard coal (289 ppb and 66 ppb respectively for a polydisperse system). Mercury concentration in ashes is several times higher than for coal which means ash may be a good absorber for mercury. Also, application of oxy-fuel technology results in smaller amount of mercury absorbed in the ash which can be related to higher emission of Hg in the gaseous form.
Keywords: mercury in coal, mercury in ash, oxy-fuel combustion
Area: Power Engineering