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Volume 4, Year 2013, Issue 2, April-June

Volume 4, Year 2013, Issue 2, April-June

Detection of disfluencies in speech signal
Author:
Katarzyna Barczewska, Magdalena Igras
Downloads:
28 x
 

 

Abstract: During public presentations or interviews, speakers commonly and unconsciously abuse interjections or filled pauses that interfere with speech fluency and negatively affect listeners impression and speech perception. Types of disfluencies and methods of detection are reviewed. Authors carried out a survey which results indicated the most adverse elements for audience. The article presents an approach
to automatic detection of the most common type of disfluencies - filled pauses. A base of patterns of filled pauses (prolongated I, prolongated e, mm, Im, xmm, using SAMPA notation) was collected from 72 minutes of recordings of public presentations and interviews of six speakers (3 male, 3 female). Statistical analysis of length and frequency of occurrence of such interjections in recordings are presented. Then, each pattern from training set was described with mean values of first and second formants (F1 and F2). Detection was performed on test set of recordings by recognizing the phonemes using the two formants with efficiency of recognition about 68%. The results of research on disfluencies in speech detection may be applied in a system that analyzes speech and provides feedback of imperfections that occurred during speech in order to help in oratorical skills training. A conceptual prototype of such an application is proposed. Moreover, a base of patterns of most common disfluencies can be used in speech recognition systems to avoid interjections during speech-to-text transcription.

Keywords: speech processing, phoneme recognition, dynamics of speech, disfluencies of speech, elocution

Area: Biomedical Engineering

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Oxidation to Form Aldehyde Groups
Author:
Aleksandra Kulikowska, Iga Wasiak, Tomasz Ciach
Downloads:
97 x
 

Abstract: Oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a method of its modification, which allows to improve the functionality of this compound by increasing its reactivity. Presented work describes two methods of oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose. The first is the conversion of CMC to its dialdehyde derivatives (DCMC) by sodium periodate. In the second method, hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FePcS) as catalyst was applied. Oxidation degree of CMC in different process parameters and time intervals was estimated using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Modified CMC will be used in nanoparticles preparation in medical diagnostics.

Keywords: oxidation, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium periodate, hydrogen peroxide, iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine

Area: Biomedical Engineering

Extending Visual Speech Synthesis for Polish with basic emotion model
Author:
Jakub Bloch
Downloads:
10 x
 

Abstract: Expressing emotions is a very important feature of Visual Speech Synthesis systems. In 1972 the first “basic emotions” list was introduced, by Paul Ekman. Since then few different classifications were published. Most famous “basic emotion” models are briefly described in this paper. In previous publication new Visual Speech Synthesis system for Polish was presented. The system was based on Xface toolkit and “Karol” face model. The aim of this paper is to add “basic emotion” model, according to Paul Ekman’s classification, into “Karol” face model. To achieve this goal new emotional keyframes were proposed. This new functionality of “Karol” face model, allows to generate talking human face animations, which express emotions. The subjective test of new functionality are also included in the paper. The results showed that more information about speakers emotions is read from human face expression than form human speech signal. People can more easily recognize speakers emotion when they see his face expression.

Keywords: Visual Speech Synthesis, emotion, Xface, Ekman

Area: Electronics and Information Technologies

Cylinder Gap Shock and its Impact on Quality of Prints in Offset Printing Technique
Author:
Juliusz Krzyżkowski, Yuriy Pyryev
Downloads:
12 x
 

Abstract: There are many factors in offset printing technique, which determine the final quality of the printouts. Next to ink, dampening liquid and paper properties, significant role plays here construction of printing unit and its technical condition. Many works, where problem of vibrations was investigated, point canals in plate and blanket cylinders as source of vibrational excitation in printing unit. The canals may generate vibrations of inking and dampening rollers, as well cylinders themselves. If wear of bearings, looseness and unbalance of rotating cylinders and rollers will be additionally taken into account, there may be expected, that excited vibrations will seriously influence on the results obtained during printing process. Some undesired artifacts, for instance, cross stripes may be noticeable on the prints then. The main scope of the researches presented in this paper was to find relation between vibrations in offset printing unit and their influence on quality of the printed image. For this purpose, while printing, measurements of vibrations of printing unit have been made. Afterwards printed test image have been precisely analyzed in search of undesired phenomena, which can be an effect of excessive vibrations in printing unit. Then comparison between position of the artifacts on the prints and the results of vibration measurements has been made. Effects of the experiment are presented in this paper.

Keywords: vibrations, offset printing, printing machine, streaking

Area: Mechanics, Automation and Robotics

Relationship in between compression of the rollers and contact area width and the clamp force
Author:
Agnieszka Jurkiewicz, Yuriy Pyryev
Downloads:
16 x
 

Abstract: In an offset printing machine the rollers (ink unit) and the cylinders (printing unit) are in contact in a lot of places. The contact surfaces comprise a metal surface and a rubber surface. As appears from findings based on the professional literature and experience of people working in printing houses the issue of contact between ink rollers and printing cylinders in an offset printing machine is of great importance. It has impact on the quality of printouts (generation of printouts errors), consumption of energy, time of making the printing machine ready for operation, wear of the machine’s components and related consumables like ink, dampening solution, paper, ink rollers, plate. During the theoretical studies, the equations were derived to show how the rollers compression depends on the contact area width and clamping force. The equations involve Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of rollers’ materials. The difference between these equations and the so far existing equations has resulted from changing the place of applying the clamping force and involving Poisson’s ratio. The paper includes the comparison of the aforesaid new equations and those known from the literature. Moreover, the relationship in between the contact area width and the compression of metal roller and rubber-covered roller was subject to experimental attempts aimed at verification of the equation presented. In order to measure the rollers compression a clock sensor was used, and for measurement of the contact area width – a device called Roller Nip Control. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper and are compared with the results obtained from the equation derived in the course of theoretical studies using the analytical method.

Keywords: contact problem, offset, blanket cylinder, rubber blanket

Area: Mechanics, Automation and Robotics

Regional planning for renewable energy sources – new approach
Author:
Anna Oniszk-Popławska, Mariusz Matyka, Roman Buss
Downloads:
28 x
 

Abstract: The energy market paradigm shift towards the so called “green revolution” assumes that in the next few decades dispersed energy sources will replace centralized generation systems. Despite growing energy related spatial conflicts, already accompanying the development of dispersed generation, it is not clear how to integrate new energy infrastructure into planning procedures. This article presents a new approach at the regional level, by unveiling the technology diffusion theory and its implications for the development planning of renewable energy sources (RES). It suggests how to integrate energy related issues into regional spatial policy, by presenting prospects for agricultural biogas plants (ABPs) in the Lubelskie region, Poland; dwelling on the experiences from a best practice region Lower Saxony, Germany.

Keywords: regional spatial and energy planning, regional policy, renewable energy, agricultural biogas

Area: Town and Urban Planning, Architecture and Building Engineering

Risks of boiler operation during slagging and fouling process – a new methods for the determination of ash sintering temperatures
Author:
Bartosz Urbanek, Arkadiusz Szydełko, Krzysztof Czajka
Downloads:
15 x
 

Abstract: The properties of mineral matter occurs in coal in the form of inorganic compounds leads to slagging and fouling process on boiler heating surfaces, burners and ash hopper. The deposition of ash cause many undesirable phenomena such as heat transfer deterioration, damage to internal parts of the boiler as a result of detachment of large agglomerates and finally, costly shutdowns of the boiler. Standardized method of risk assessment of agglomerates formation and sintered fly ash is determined by four melting temperatures of ash. This measurement is based on visual appraisal of ash sample deformation which is subjective and strongly depends on the experience of the person conducting the test. Especially is hard predict the first two temperatures: deformation and sintering. An article has to present three non-standardized methods for determining the sintering temperature by using physical parameters: pressure drop and minimum force of probe destruction. This type of measurement allows a quantitative way to obtain reliable and meaningful result. The experiment showed that the results of non-standard methods deviate from those set using the Leitz method. This allows to conclude that sintering processes occur at much lower temperatures and changing the shape of the initial (test method Leitz) is not the first symptom of demonstrating the melting of the ash.

Keywords: mineral matter, sintering, fouling, Leitz test, strength method, pressure-drop method

Area: Power Engineering

 
 
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