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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Alexander, B. Locomotor patterns in the exploring house mouse (Mus musculus) 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 55-59 
article URL 
Abstract: For animals, home range exploration is a learning process during which the animal uses sensory-motor activity to incrementally map properties of a future home range into long-term memory to be used by the animal subsequently for effi cient navigation within the explored range. Most research on home range orientation focuses on the navigational performance of the animal with pre-existing knowledge–after exploration. Typically, exploration behavior appears random, but there must be some systematic component to result in the animal acquiring spatial knowledge. Few studies have looked at the spatiotemporal pattern of exploration for any part that is not random. Using the house mouse as the model species, we study exploration behavior in a radial arm maze, with the nest box in the center. With these spatial constraints, it is easier to separate the random and systematic components of exploration. We found that the mice tend to avoid exploring an arm of the maze previously visited one or two times earlier, yet the choices among any other arms not previously visited are almost indistinguishable from random.
BibTeX:
@article{Blythe2011,
  author = {Blythe Alexander},
  title = {Locomotor patterns in the exploring house mouse (Mus musculus)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {55-59},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/14-locomotor-patterns-in-the-exploring-house-mouse-mus-musculus}
}
Andrzej Polańczyk, A.P. CFD simulations of blood flow through abdominal part of aorta 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 34-39 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim of this research was to show superiority of using real geometries in simulations of blood fl ow through cardiovascular system. Our model compared blood fl ow through an abdominal part of aorta reconstructed with a use of data from an AngioTK research with the 3DDoctor software to geometries with the same diameters at inlet and outlet as mention before but created only with the Gambit 2.2.30 software without data from AngioTK. Blood fl ow simulations were prepared with the Fluent 6.2.16 software. Calculations of fl ow through a real geometry allows to obtain realistic results of values connected with process of blood flow. Results showed that calculations blood fl ow through a virtual geometry lasted two times longer than for a real geometry. Mesh for a real geometry consist about 600.000 elements and for a virtual geometry about 900.000 elements. Wall shear stress and blood velocity was higher for a real geometry and closer to that in human organism. It was shown that calculating a virtual geometry vessel was to big simplifi cation when investigating blood flow through a vessel. Application of mathematical models based on real geometries gives more realistic results than artifi cial geometries. Virtual models have lots of simplifi cations which results are far away from expectations. Simplifi cations depend on the model that is used.
BibTeX:
@article{Polanczyk2010,
  author = {Andrzej Polańczyk, Aleksandra Piechota},
  title = {CFD simulations of blood flow through abdominal part of aorta},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {34-39},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/126-cfd-simulations-of-blood-flow-through-abdominal-part-of-aorta}
}
Arcipowska, A. Methodological concept of decision making support tool for the purpose of long-term energy planning 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 60-64 
article URL 
Abstract: Formulation of long-term energy strategies and polices is a complex tasks. It needs to consider number of aspects i.a. forecast of energy and fuel demand, possible supply paths, expected impact on environment, as well as public consultation process. There are number of formal methods that aim supporting decision making for the long-term energy planning. They help understanding complexity of problem, fi nding the best compromise solution and allow public participation. In the following paper methodological concept of combining energy scenarios and multi-criteria analysis (MCA) will be introduced. Energy scenarios are tools that help to explore and understand the future energy system. MCA provides assessment of diff erent policy option in respect to multiple criteria. Moreover it allows public participation in decision making process. Combined method is promising tool for energy planning and decision.
BibTeX:
@article{Arcipowska2011,
  author = {Aleksandra Arcipowska},
  title = {Methodological concept of decision making support tool for the purpose of long-term energy planning},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {60-64},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/15-methodological-concept-of-decision-making-support-tool-for-the-purpose-of-long-term-energy-planning}
}
Bakuła, K. Comparison of six approaches in DTM reduction for fl ood risk determination 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 31-36 
article URL 
Abstract: Software for creating fl ood risk maps and simulation of fl ood water is based on Digital Terrain Model (DTM). LIDAR is the most eff ective data source for DTM creation. Th e essential problem for such data is high redundancy for complex calculations in algorithms used in programs for fl ood model description. However, it is possible to provide suitable DTM for fl ood modeling by its generalization, which could still ensure suffi cient accuracy for hydrodynamic — numerical calculations. In this paper six generalization algorithms were tested to obtain DTM with small number of points and with accuracy comparable to the original model created from LIDAR data. Th e main criteria for this comparison was the relation between accuracy and reduction coeffi cient of fi nal result. Methods used in this research based on diff erent DTM structures. GRID, hybrid and hierarchical structure were compared in various creating approaches to obtain the most reduced and the most accurate terrain model of two case areas. As the result of experiment the best methods for data reduction were chosen. Over 90% reduction rate and less than 20 cm root mean standard error were achieved for diff erent types of terrain with respect to input DTM. It was noted that hybrid models can be more effi cient than a typical uniform GRID. Such reduced models were used in practice to determinate fl ood risk by creating maps of fl ooded area for selected water levels. Diff erence between results from unreduced and reduced DTMs was very slight what proves that well-generalized models of terrain can be eff ectively used in that application.
BibTeX:
@article{Bakul2011,
  author = {Krzzztof Bakuła},
  title = {Comparison of six approaches in DTM reduction for fl ood risk determination},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {31--36},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/64-comparison-of-six-approaches-in-dtm-reduction-for-fl-ood-risk-determination}
}
Barczak, T. and Mianowski, K. Project of the assigning/executive manipulator to surgery 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 20-24 
article URL 
Abstract: The development of an interactive remote control of robots, of sensors and of view systems has enabled an expansion of potential area of modern surgery. Initiated by an army, the project of surgery in the fi eld of battle has become a base of new domain of knowledge. It should be noticed that surgery executed by robots as minimally invasive surgery could be more precise and less incriminating for patient then using classical methods. Th e topic of the research described in this elaboration is the project of the haptic device with 6 degrees of freedom intended for the work with feedback-force control. Th e kinematic scheme is based on a partially decoupled parallelogram mechanism POLMAN 3×2. It means that it has 3 arms, each consists of parallelogram and quadrilateral transmission-carrying mechanism. The displacement of any degree of freedom has a very little infl uence on other degrees of freedom. Very important problem for ergonomic and surgery precision is a signal communication between the two sides, so it can give a feeling of real touching of an operated tissue by a doctor.
BibTeX:
@article{Barczak2011,
  author = {Tomasz Barczak and Krzysztof Mianowski},
  title = {Project of the assigning/executive manipulator to surgery},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {20--24},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/46-project-of-the-assigning-executive-manipulator-to-surgery}
}
Barczewska, K. and Igras, M. Detection of disfluencies in speech signal 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 3-10 
article URL 
Abstract: During public presentations or interviews, speakers commonly and unconsciously abuse interjections or filled pauses that interfere with speech fluency and negatively affect listeners impression and speech perception. Types of disfluencies and methods of detection are reviewed. Authors carried out a survey which results indicated the most adverse elements for audience. The article presents an approach
to automatic detection of the most common type of disfluencies - filled pauses. A base of patterns of filled pauses (prolongated I, prolongated e, mm, Im, xmm, using SAMPA notation) was collected from 72 minutes of recordings of public presentations and interviews of six speakers (3 male, 3 female). Statistical analysis of length and frequency of occurrence of such interjections in recordings are presented. Then, each pattern from training set was described with mean values of first and second formants (F1 and F2). Detection was performed on test set of recordings by recognizing the phonemes using the two formants with efficiency of recognition about 68%. The results of research on disfluencies in speech detection may be applied in a system that analyzes speech and provides feedback of imperfections that occurred during speech in order to help in oratorical skills training. A conceptual prototype of such an application is proposed. Moreover, a base of patterns of most common disfluencies can be used in speech recognition systems to avoid interjections during speech-to-text transcription.
BibTeX:
@article{Barczewska2013,
  author = {Katarzyna Barczewska and Magdalena Igras},
  title = {Detection of disfluencies in speech signal},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--10},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/147-detection-of-disfluencies-in-speech-signal}
}
Ben-Hamu, G. Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking of New Wrought Magnesium Alloys 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 79-87 
article URL 
Abstract: New magnesium alloys (Die-Cast and wrought) have increasingly been developed in recent years for the automotive industry due to their high potential as structural materials for low density and high strength/weight ratio demands. However, their poor mechanical properties and low corrosion resistance have led to a search for new kinds of magnesium alloys with better strength, ductility, high temperature behaviour and high corrosion resistance. Th e main objective of this research is to investigate the corrosion behaviour of new magnesium alloys: Mg-Al-Ca, Mg-Al-Sr, Mg-Zn-Mn-Si (ZSM) and Mg-Zn-Mn-Si-Ca (ZSMX). Th ese ZSM6X1 and ZSM651+YCa alloys were prepared using hot extrusion. Th ese Mg-Al-Ca and Mg-Al-Sr were prepared using high pressure die cast. AC and DC polarization tests were carried out on the new alloys. Microstructure was examined using optical and electron microscopy (SEM) and EDS. Th e addition of Si increased the corrosion resistance. Th e additions of Sr and Ca also aff ected the corrosion behaviour. Th ese results can be explained by the eff ects of alloying elements on the microstructure of Mg alloys such as grain size and precipitates caused by the change in precipitation and recrystallisation behaviour.
BibTeX:
@article{BenHamu2010,
  author = {Guy Ben-Hamu},
  title = {Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking of New Wrought Magnesium Alloys},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79-87},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/134-corrosion-and-stress-corrosion-cracking-of-new-wrought-magnesium-alloys}
}
Benniran, A. Robustness and disturbance rejection with application of linear MPC technique to industrial manipulators 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 40-47 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper studies an application of linear MPC and PID techniques to a 6-DOF industrial manipulator. Th e manipulator is IRp-6 made by ABB during 70s of last century. It is characterized by high gear ratios and joint linear friction. Th ese make the control task more convenient for PID. Th e robustness and stability against model un-certainty were examined. Also, the effi ciency of both techniques against noise rejection was checked by adding a white Gaussian noise. Results of simulation prove the advantages of MPC technique to PID in robustness and noise rejection.
BibTeX:
@article{Benniran2010,
  author = {Ali Benniran},
  title = {Robustness and disturbance rejection with application of linear MPC technique to industrial manipulators},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {40-47},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/127-robustness-and-disturbance-rejection-with-application-of-linear-mpc-technique-to-industrial-manipulators}
}
Białek, M. Ontology-Based Information Extraction: Current Approaches 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 69-75 
article URL 
Abstract: The purpose of Information Extraction (IE) is extracting information from unstructured, or semi structured machine readable documents by automatic means. Generally this means dealing with human language texts using natural language processing (NLP) techniques. Recently on the market of IE systems a new player emerged. Ontology-Based IE (OBIE) idea consequently gains more and more supporters. In this approach a crucial role in the IE process is played by ontology (formal representation of the knowledge by a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts). Using Ontology as one of the IE tools makes OBIE very convenient approach for gathering information that can be later on used in construction of Semantic Web. In this paper I will explain the idea of OBIE with its fl aws and advantages. I will try not only to provide theoretical approach, but also to review current trends in this fi eld. Th is will be done to point out some common architecture in currently used systems and in the end classify them based on diff erent factors depending on their usability in real life application. As a conclusion an attempt to identify possible trends and directions in this fi eld will be made.
BibTeX:
@article{Bialek2010,
  author = {Marcin Białek},
  title = {Ontology-Based Information Extraction: Current Approaches},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {69-75},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/132-ontology-based-information-extraction-current-approaches}
}
Bladowski, J. Algorithmic architecture 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 83-86 
article URL 
Abstract: What should be the exact scope of computer involvement in architecture design? What ways of thinking should we use in order to completely utilize computer programming possibilities?
Th ere is a notion of observing nature and using its ways of coping in architectural design. We, architects could perform design techniques closely similar to those observed in natural processes. Evolution, natural selection and eff ectiveness could be phrases used in reference to architectural design. Architecture is an art of meeting people’s needs, an art that creates diff erent styles and trends. There are always human related topics in that kind of design. Is technology able to meet its needs?
BibTeX:
@article{Bladowski2011,
  author = {Jakub Bladowski},
  title = {Algorithmic architecture},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {83-86},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/20-algorithmic-architecture}
}
Bloch, J. Extending Visual Speech Synthesis for Polish with basic emotion model 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 19-22 
article URL 
Abstract: Expressing emotions is a very important feature of Visual Speech Synthesis systems. In 1972 the first “basic emotions” list was introduced, by Paul Ekman. Since then few different classifications were published. Most famous “basic emotion” models are briefly described in this paper. In previous publication new Visual Speech Synthesis system for Polish was presented. The system was based on Xface toolkit and “Karol” face model. The aim of this paper is to add “basic emotion” model, according to Paul Ekman’s classification, into “Karol” face model. To achieve this goal new emotional keyframes were proposed. This new functionality of “Karol” face model, allows to generate talking human face animations, which express emotions. The subjective test of new functionality are also included in the paper. The results showed that more information about speakers emotions is read from human face expression than form human speech signal. People can more easily recognize speakers emotion when they see his face expression.
BibTeX:
@article{Bloch2013,
  author = {Jakub Bloch},
  title = {Extending Visual Speech Synthesis for Polish with basic emotion model},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {19--22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/156-extending-visual-speech-synthesis-for-polish-with-basic-emotion-model}
}
Bobrowska-Rafał, M., Rafał, K., Piasecki, S. and Jasiński, M. Resonant Controller for Higher Harmonics Compensation in PWM rectifiers 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 23-26 
article URL 
Abstract: In this article algorithm for minimizing negative impact of higher harmonics on proper operation of PWM rectifi er is presented. Short overview of harmonics compensation methods is also given. Furthermore, Resonance Harmonic Compensator is widely described. Simulation results of compensation of harmonics are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Bobrowska2011,
  author = {Małgorzata Bobrowska-Rafał and Krzysztof Rafał and Szymon Piasecki and Marek Jasiński},
  title = {Resonant Controller for Higher Harmonics Compensation in PWM rectifiers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {23--26},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/26-resonant-controller-for-higher-harmonics-compensation-in-pwm-rectifiers}
}
Borzęcka, A. Activity of perovskite catalysts contain Pt or Pd in toluene oxidation 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 26-28 
article URL 
Abstract: Perovskite catalysts with active phase composed of LaMnO3 or La0.75Ag0.25MnO3 doped with noble metals — platinum or palladium — were tested for activity in oxidation of toluene. Th eir impregnation with solution of Pt or Pd compounds increased the catalytic activity. LaMnO3 with Pt content displayed the highest activity. LaMnO3 perovskite doped with both noble metals show higher activity than when noble metals were added to La0.75Ag0.25MnO3 perovskite.
BibTeX:
@article{Borzeck2012,
  author = {Agnieszka Borzęcka},
  title = {Activity of perovskite catalysts contain Pt or Pd in toluene oxidation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {26--28},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/111-activity-of-perovskite-catalysts-contain-pt-or-pd-in-toluene-oxidation}
}
Bubak, G., Kowalczyk, M., Brynk, T., Bojar, W., Kucharska, M. and Ciach, T. Preparation of chitosan/calcium phosphate based injectable system for guided bone regeneration and its properties investigation 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 21-26 
article URL 
Abstract: The main objective of the work was to design and fabricate an injectable biomaterial with osteoconductive properties that can be used in dental applications in peri-implant therapy concerning guided bone regeneration. For that purpose, a self-setting biomaterial consisting of chitosan/tricalcium phosphate microparticles and sodium alginate was formulated. The obtained material was characterized regarding microsphere and formed agglomerates morphology and microstructure. Physical properties, relating to setting time and mechanical properties, were also investigated. Finally, in vivo response to implanted biomaterial was studied on a rat model and compared with commercially available alloplastic material. Th e results showed that designed injectable biomaterial fulfi lled main requirements for guided bone regeneration application.
BibTeX:
@article{Bubak2011,
  author = {Grzegorz Bubak and Magdalena Kowalczyk and Tomasz Brynk and Witold Bojar and Martyna Kucharska and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Preparation of chitosan/calcium phosphate based injectable system for guided bone regeneration and its properties investigation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {21--26},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/62-preparation-of-chitosan-calcium-phosphate-based-injectable-system-for-guided-bone-regeneration-and-its-properties-investigation}
}
Cieślik, M. Parylene N coating on stainless steel surface as a protective layer for metal implants 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 23-26 
article URL 
Abstract: The protection properties of parylene coating on implant stainless steel 316L was investigated. The electrochemical measurements and metal ions release tests in Hanks solution revealed that the coating can be successfully used for corrosion protection. The addition of hydrogen peroxide, simulating the infl ammatory response of human body causes a decrease of protection properties of the coating. However, usage of parylene coating on stainless steel reduce iron ions release rates.
BibTeX:
@article{Cieslik2010,
  author = {Monika Cieślik},
  title = {Parylene N coating on stainless steel surface as a protective layer for metal implants},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23-26},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/123-parylene-n-coating-on-stainless-steel-surface-as-a-protective-layer-for-metal-implants}
}
Clementine, K.A., Nguessan, K.F., Thomas, D.A., Dje, M.K. and Montet, D. Application of culture dependent methods and culture-independent methods (DGGE analysis) to study Lactic acid bacteria ecology of Ivorian fermented fish Adjuevan 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 51-56 
article URL 
Abstract: The occurrence of lactic acid bacteria fl ora (LAB) was investigated on Ivorian fermented fi sh Adjuevan products produced with sea fi sh at diff erent salt concentration (10, 15, 20, 25, 30%) according two traditional methods. LAB biodiversity was investigated using traditional culture-dependent method and culture-independent method (DGGE). LAB isolates were Lactobacillus fermentum 54%, Leuconostoc lactis subsp lactis 27%, Pediococcus pentosaceus 19% according method 1 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 61%, Lactococcus garviae 32%, Streptococcus diffi cilis 7% for method 2. Th e results of culture-independent method using DGGE patterns and sequencing of DNA bands revealed a higher number of lactic acid bacteria species even if the identifi cation of several lactic acid bacteria species were not possible by traditional microbiological procedures. LAB were Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Leuconostoc lactis, Lactococcus raffi nolactis. Microfl ora was infl uence by salt percentage and more by the method of fermentation used. Th e molecular method DGGE which used three primers Lac1, Lac2GC and Lac3 to study LAB biodiversity directly in the fermented fi sh matrix, have allowed us to get a more complete picture of the dominant lactic acid bacteria diversity in these fermented product Adjuevan.
BibTeX:
@article{Clementine2012,
  author = {Kouakou Amenan Clementine and Kouadio Florent Nguessan and Dadier A. Thomas and Marcellin Koffi Dje and Didier Montet},
  title = {Application of culture dependent methods and culture-independent methods (DGGE analysis) to study Lactic acid bacteria ecology of Ivorian fermented fish Adjuevan},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {51--56},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/80-application-of-culture-dependent-methods-and-culture-independent-methods-dgge-analysis-to-study-lactic-acid-bacteria-ecology-of-ivorian-fermented-fi-sh-adjuevan}
}
Cyranka, J. Computer Assisted Proofs in Dissipative Partial Differential Equations 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 3-6 
article URL 
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to present a brief survey of our research that has focused on studying the dynamics of dissipative partial diff erential equations by performing computer as sisted proofs. We provide a description of the main ideas behind the computer assisted proofs that we have performed, along with related topics. Th e emphasis is given to the case of the vis cous Burgers equation with constant forcing, for which the existence of globally attracting fixed points has been established. To achieve this goal, we used a combination of analytical results with computer assistance.
BibTeX:
@article{Cyrank2012,
  author = {Jacek Cyranka},
  title = {Computer Assisted Proofs in Dissipative Partial Differential Equations},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {3--6},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/95-computer-assisted-proofs-in-dissipative-partial-differential-equations}
}
Cyranka, J. Rigorous Integration of Burgers Equation 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 3-7 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents techniques that allows to rigorously integrate dissipative partial diff erential equations. A full case study of an application to the Burgers equation on the line with periodic boundary conditions is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Cyrank2011,
  author = {Jacek Cyranka},
  title = {Rigorous Integration of Burgers Equation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {3--7},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/42-rigorous-integration-of-burgers-equation}
}
Daniel Rumiński Andrzej Kowalczyk, M.W. Optical Fourier Domain Interferometry as a novel tool for biological imaging 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 16-18 
article URL 
Abstract: Purpose of this work is to introduce results of biological objects measurements with Optical Coherence Tomography system working with swept source laser (OFDI system). Th is specified source with spectrum centred around 1040 nm is dedicated to measure posterior segment of the eye. OCT with this wavelength is expected to be next generation for this sort of systems. Although commonly used 800 nm source enables imaging retina, deeper tissue layers are not available with this wavelength. Longer wavelengths in range of infrared spectrum (e.g. 1040 nm) are being weakly scattered which enables to go down to the choroid layer [1]. Examination this structure composed mostly from blood vessels might be very important for early diagnosis of eye diseases. In this paper system setup, swept source scheme and eye images would be introduced.
BibTeX:
@article{Ruminski2011,
  author = {Daniel Rumiński, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Maciej Wojtkowski},
  title = {Optical Fourier Domain Interferometry as a novel tool for biological imaging},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {16-18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/5-optical-fourier-domain-interferometry-as-a-novel-tool-for-biological-imaging}
}
Djas, M., Bober, M. and Henczka, M. New methods for inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice concentrate 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 46-49 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper is focused on new methods for inhibiting Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores germination in apple juice concentrate. Four methods such as pulsed electric fi eld (PEF), ultrasound (US), integrated method of PEF and US and microwaves (MW) have been investigated. The highest effi ciency of spores inactivation was obtained after microwave treatment.
BibTeX:
@article{Djas2011,
  author = {Małgorzata Djas and Magdalena Bober and Marek Henczka},
  title = {New methods for inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice concentrate},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {46--49},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/32-new-methods-for-inactivation-of-alicyclobacillus-acidoterrestris-spores-in-apple-juice-concentrate}
}
Duncan, D., Duckrow, R.B., Coifman, R.R. and Zaveri, H.P. Intracranial EEG Evaluation of a Resting State Network 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 27-29 
article URL 
Abstract: The study of brain networks is based, to a large extent, on pairwise measurements of relationships. Such pairwise relationships can be estimated from brain electrical activity measured from the scalp with routine EEG, from intracranial electrodes during monitoring for epilepsy surgery, or with functional MRI (fMRI) measurements. Here we focus on the study of brain networks through the measurement of pairwise relationships in brain electrical activity as measured by intracranial EEGs. Intracranial EEG data from 11 patients were tested for the presence of relationships which would confi rm or disconfi rm the presence of a resting state network which has previously been observed with fMRI. Mutual information was used as a measure of relationship.
BibTeX:
@article{Duncan2010,
  author = {Dominique Duncan and Robert B. Duckrow and Ronald R. Coifman and Hitten P. Zaveri},
  title = {Intracranial EEG Evaluation of a Resting State Network},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27-29},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/124-intracranial-eeg-evaluation-of-a-resting-state-network}
}
Dzierżanowski, K. and Gawroński, S.W. Heavy metal concentration in plants growing on the vicinity of railroad tracks: a pilot study 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 42-45 
article URL 
Abstract: Railway transport is a source of various heavy metals arising from abraded metallic train elements and rails. Th ese metals accumulate in neighboring soils and may pose particular health risk for railway workers or people who simply pass through the railroad tracks. Plants are able to uptake metals from soil, thus reduce soil contamination and movement of pollutants. Individual species are characterized by diff erent accumulation effi ciency. In this study fi fteen species were examined for accumulation of 14 metals. Cerastium dubium accumulated the majority of metals most effi ciently.
BibTeX:
@article{Dzierzanowski2012,
  author = {Kajetan Dzierżanowski and Stanisław W. Gawroński},
  title = {Heavy metal concentration in plants growing on the vicinity of railroad tracks: a pilot study},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {42--45},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/78-heavy-metal-concentration-in-plants-growing-on-the-vicinity-of-railroad-tracks-a-pilot-study}
}
Fekieta, D. Analysis of properties of a laboratory model of a Gamma Stirling engine 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 47-52 
article URL 
Abstract: The main subject of the article is the analysis of the characteristics of a Stirling engine. The article presents a general principle of operation of the engine, its basic types and properties. The paper contains a description of the construction of a laboratory model of the engine and the results of the experimental studies. The basic criterion which guided the designing and building the engine was to maximize the energy density, efficiency, while minimizing the cost of materials – to this end the engine has been designed and constructed so as to allow replacement of particular components. The conducted experimental studies have shown that the best parameters of the engine has a cylinder made of iron, a steel flywheel and a steel radiator. The brake efficiency of the engine for this configuration was 16%.
BibTeX:
@article{Fekiet2013,
  author = {Daniel Fekieta},
  title = {Analysis of properties of a laboratory model of a Gamma Stirling engine},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {47--52},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/145-analysis-of-properties-of-a-laboratory-model-of-a-gamma-stirling-engine}
}
Gabryś, K. Numerical modelling of a test embankment on soft ground 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 37-43 
article URL 
Abstract: he construction of an embankment situated on soft subsoil with a high groundwater level leads to a rise in pore pressure. This “undrained behaviour” can made the eff ective stress to remain low and intermediate consolidation periods to be adopted so that the construction of the embankment is safe. During a consolidation process the dissipation of the excess pore pressure is observed in order to increase the shear strength of the soil to continue the construction process [4]. The behaviour of a test embankment founded on a soft soil in Warsaw, on the Ursynowska Scarp, in the Campus SGGW (Warsaw University of Life Sciences) site was simulated with a use of a fi nite element analysis [6]. This study presents an experimental work, a construction of a flood-control embankment on organic soil represented by peat. Th e modelling of an embankment behaviour is carried out by the program PLAXIS (Finite Element Code for Soil and Rock Analysis). Measurements were taken of pore pressure, dissipations rates and displacements in the foundation peat. Predictions of these were made using a simple Soft Soil Model. Moreover, the calculation of the safety factor, the eff ect of the drains on the consolidation process and an update mesh analysis were investigated. The results suggest the signifi cant impact of drains on the speed of the consolidation course. Th e commonly accepted Mohr-Coulomb Model and Soft Soil Model, which involve typical parameters obtained from in-situ and laboratory testing, can be successfully selected for examination the behaviour of fl ood-control embankment situated on soft soils. The Updated mesh and Updated water pressure analysis reduces the settlements and allows for a more realistic study of settlements, while the positive effects of large deformations is considered. However, there is a great need to compare the numerical simulation with the real existing embankments located on problematic soils.
BibTeX:
@article{Gabrys2012,
  author = {Katarzyna Gabryś},
  title = {Numerical modelling of a test embankment on soft ground},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {37--43},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/91-numerical-modelling-of-a-test-embankment-on-soft-ground}
}
Gabryś, K. Geotechnical parameters in description of soft soils consolidation 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 61-64 
article URL 
Abstract: The construction of embankments on organic soils is associated with necessary to improve subsoil conditions. Soft organic soils are often highly compressible and have low shear strengths, what causes large deformation, both vertically as well as horizontally, that may occur during and after the construction period [11]. Th e settlements usually appear quickly but can also continue for a very long time because of the secondary compression [6]. However, in Poland there are large areas with soft organic soils where diff erent kinds of embankments have to be constructed. In these cases, the prediction of soil behavior and the selection of a proper design method becomes an important and complex engineering task. In this paper the analysis of the soft subsoil deformation process under load is presented. The main factors that determine the consolidation of soft subsoil are described, as well as the proposition of changes in organic soils properties for better prediction of the construction’s settlements. Based on fi eld observations and laboratory test results, the characterization of organic soft soils and the results the calculation procedure are proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{Gabrys2010,
  author = {Katarzyna Gabryś},
  title = {Geotechnical parameters in description of soft soils consolidation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {61-64},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/130-geotechnical-parameters-in-description-of-soft-soils-consolidation}
}
Gadzała, P., Cieszko, M., Szczepański, Z. and Zych, G. Determination of bone volume porosity based on histograms of the mCT scans 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 88-89 
article URL 
Abstract: The new method is proposed in the paper for determination of volume porosity of bone tissue based on histograms of 3D mCT scans and also precise defi nition of the threshold value of relative density preserving calculated volume porosity during the reconstruction of the binary image of sample. In this method the normed histogram is considered as a probability distribution of relative mass density in the bone sample. It was shown that the normed histograms of increasing 3D sample are convergent to the limit curve which can be interpreted as a representative histogram of given sample. The limit histograms have been used to determine: the distributions of relative densities in the sets of voxels of pore and skeleton type and their characteristics, the volume porosities of both samples and thresholds values of their binarisation.
BibTeX:
@article{Gadzala2010,
  author = {Paweł‚ Gadzała and M. Cieszko and Zbigniew Szczepański and G. Zych},
  title = {Determination of bone volume porosity based on histograms of the mCT scans},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {88-89},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/135-determination-of-bone-volume-porosity-based-on-histograms-of-the-mct-scans}
}
Gajadhur, M., Podsiadło, H. and Abramczyk, S. Resistance to ageing of selected books of children’s literature 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 35-37 
article URL 
Abstract: Resistance to ageing was studied for a number of selected items of children’s literature. Print rub-off tests were performed for 3 bases used in printing of children’s books, namely plastic sheets, white uncoated (off set) paper, and varnished prints. Three children’s books used in the experimental works were: a “bathing book” printed by fl exographic technique on plastic sheets, a book printed on uncoated white paper, and a book printed on double-sided varnish-coated cardboard. Rub-off resistance tests were performed on Ink Rub Tester under identical rub rate (85 cycles/min). Th e resistance was evaluated by spectrophotometric and densitometric method and by visual observations. About 6000 rub-off cycles were performed for each of the books tested.
BibTeX:
@article{Gajadhur2011,
  author = {Marta Gajadhur and Halina Podsiadło and Sylwia Abramczyk},
  title = {Resistance to ageing of selected books of children’s literature},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {35--37},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/29-resistance-to-ageing-of-selected-books-of-children-s-literature}
}
Gajadhur, M. and Skrzydelska, R. Strength and optical properties of papers subjected to artificial light ageing 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 15-18 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents strength and optical properties of selected paper printing bases put to operational use such as artifi cial light ageing. Th e process infl uences signifi cantly the quality of printing products. Th e aim of the experiments performed was to reveal the changes occurring in paper during diff erent stages of its operational use. The results obtained enabled to compare the strength and optical properties of the tested bases exposed to light with those found for the paper referred to as “long-lived paper”.
BibTeX:
@article{Gajadhur2012,
  author = {Marta Gajadhur and Romualda Skrzydelska},
  title = {Strength and optical properties of papers subjected to artificial light ageing},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {15--18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/98-strength-and-optical-properties-of-papers-subjected-to-artificial-light-ageing}
}
Gąsior-Głogowska, M., Komorowska, M., Hanuza, J., Mączka, M., Będziński, R. and Kobielarz, M. Mechanobiology of soft tissues: FT-Raman spectroscopic studies 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 8-11 
article URL 
Abstract: FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate microstructural changes in the secondary protein structure of soft tissues subjected to increasing levels of macroscopic strain. Main protein bands at 938 cm-1 assigned as ?(C?–C), 1668 cm-1 — amide I and 1268 cm-1 — amide III are sensitive to applied strain and undergo wavenumber shifting. Other main vibrational modes at 1004 cm-1 assigned to the phenyl ring breathing mode and 2940 cm-1 (n(CH3,CH2)) remain unaltered. Spectroscopic results were compared with the mechanical relations obtained from the standard protocol of uniaxial tensile tests carried out in a testing machine. A clear correlation between Raman band shifting and the level of mechanical stress was established. Initially the load is transferred through elastin and then gradually also by collagen. It was proved that transferring loads by soft tissues involves changes in structural protein conformation. Th is process was described in detail for a tendon. It was also confi rmed that mechanical properties of soft tissues depend on collagen and elastin fi bers orientation.
BibTeX:
@article{Gasior2011,
  author = {Marlena Gąsior-Głogowska and Małgorzata Komorowska and Jerzy Hanuza and Mirosław Mączka and Romuald Będziński and Magdalena Kobielarz},
  title = {Mechanobiology of soft tissues: FT-Raman spectroscopic studies},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {8--11},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/43-mechanobiology-of-soft-tissues-ft-raman-spectroscopic-studies}
}
Glebov, A. A Java-based secure platform for distributed computation 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 76-78 
article URL 
Abstract: We present a platform for distributed computation that employs Java RMI as the underlying communication technology, making use of its remote class-loading features. Th e platform permits dynamic connection of executor nodes and guarantees that executors are properly released. Security is reinforced by authentication based on X.509 certifi cates and SSL encryption. We show that the overhead associated with authentication and encryption is negligible in practically important cases.
BibTeX:
@article{,
  author = {Artem Glebov},
  title = {A Java-based secure platform for distributed computation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {76-78},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/133-a-java-based-secure-platform-for-distributed-computation}
}
Glushkova, D. Effect of Chemical Composition on the Scraper Conveyor Parts Hardness and Wear Resistance 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 18-20 
article URL 
Abstract: In this paper Tthe optimal chemical composition of steel that provides high hardness and wear resistance of scraper conveyor parts is offeredhas been presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Glushkov2013,
  author = {D. Glushkova},
  title = {Effect of Chemical Composition on the Scraper Conveyor Parts Hardness and Wear Resistance},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {18--20},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/164-effect-of-chemical-composition-on-the-scraper-conveyor-parts-hardness-and-wear-resistance}
}
Greluk, M., Hubicki, Z., Wawrzkiewicz, M. and Wołowicz, A. Application of weakly basic anion exchanger for removal of Remazol Black B 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-33 
article URL 
Abstract: The weakly basic anion exchangers of the functional tertiary amine gropus with the polystyrene skeleton: Amberlyst A-21 and with acrylic skeleton: Amberlite IRA-67 were investigated as adsorbents of Remazol Black B from aqueous solutions. Experiments were carried out as function of contact time (1–240 min.), initial dye concentration (50–500 mg/dm3), pH (1–12), temperature (298–318 K) and ionic strength (NaCl). Th e results indicate that the investigated anion exhchangers are suitab;e as adsorbent material of Remazol Black B from aqueous solutions.
BibTeX:
@article{Greluk2011a,
  author = {Magdalena Greluk and Zbigniew Hubicki and Monika Wawrzkiewicz and Anna Wołowicz},
  title = {Application of weakly basic anion exchanger for removal of Remazol Black B},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {29--33},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/48-application-of-weakly-basic-anion-exchanger-for-removal-of-remazol-black-b}
}
Głowiński, P. and Łada, A. The compact decoupling for system of thermoelasticity in viscoporous media and exponential decay 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 3-6 
article URL 
Abstract: The problem of exponential decay for solutions of porous-thermoelasticity system, when time t ??? is studied. For sufficiently small values of parame ter of intensity of elasticity-porosity interactions the exponential decaying is established. Th e idea of compact decoupling is applied for the system of equations. Exponential decay is proved first for the simpler decoupled system, then the prop erty is derived for the original system.
BibTeX:
@article{Glowinski2011,
  author = {Przemysław Głowiński and Andrzej Łada},
  title = {The compact decoupling for system of thermoelasticity in viscoporous media and exponential decay},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {3--6},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/59-the-compact-decoupling-for-system-of-thermoelasticity-in-viscoporous-media-and-exponential-decay}
}
Hadam, A. Effect of hydrogel on the turf grass species growing under drought stress 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 3-6 
article URL 
Abstract: As the supply of urban lawn grass� irrigation is expensive and laborious it is important to fi nd other methods which are eff ective against the water defi ciency. Th e aim of the study was therefore the assessment of hydrogels infl uence on the the most common grass species (Festuca rubra, Festuca ovina, Lollium perenne) which were cultivated under controlled drought stress. Results indicated that this watersorbent increased the germination, growth and dry matter content of tested species. It was therefore concluded that using hydrogels on grasslands seems to be reasonable in accordance to the water defi ciency problems.
BibTeX:
@article{Hadam2010,
  author = {Anna Hadam},
  title = {Effect of hydrogel on the turf grass species growing under drought stress},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3-6},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/118-effect-of-hydrogel-on-the-turf-grass-species-growing-under-drought-stress}
}
Hofman, I.M., Ziółkowska, K., Dybko, A. and Brzózka, Z. An integrated gas removing system for microfluidic application. Design and evaluation 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 10-15 
article URL 
Abstract: Microfluidic systems are used in a wide range of applications, including medical diagnostics, cell engineering and bioanalytics. In this work we focused on “Lab-on-a-chip” microsystems for cell cultivation. A troublesome problem of gas bubbles entering microdevices causing signal interferences and cells damage was emphasized. A novel, integrated debubbler in the form of cylindrical traps covered with thin PDMS membrane was designed and manufactured. Demonstrated debubbler was successfully applied in a long-lasting culture of HT-29 cell aggregates.
BibTeX:
@article{Hofman2013,
  author = {Iga Martyna Hofman and Karina Ziółkowska and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {An integrated gas removing system for microfluidic application. Design and evaluation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {10--15},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/149-an-integrated-gas-removing-system-for-microfluidic-application-design-and-evaluation}
}
Ibrahim, A.M., Widodo, S. and Hong, S. Parametric study simulation of axially loaded ored pile using finite element ode—Plaxis Software on subsurface soils Khartoum area-Sudan 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 33-38 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Ibrahim2012,
  author = {Abdelazim Makki Ibrahim and Slamet Widodo and Shen Hong},
  title = {Parametric study simulation of axially loaded ored pile using finite element ode—Plaxis Software on subsurface soils Khartoum area-Sudan},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {33--38},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/102-parametric-study-simulation-of-axially-loaded-bored-pile-using-finite-element-code-plaxis-software-on-subsurface-soils-khartoum-area-sudan}
}
Jabłoński, S., Krasowska, A., Januszewicz, J., Vogt, A. and Łukaszewicz, M. Cascade reactor system for methanogenic fermentation 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 37-41 
article URL 
Abstract: Methanogenic fermentation is promising method of obtaining environment-friendly energy. Moreover it can be used for disposal of sewage and other organic waste. However process complexity and susceptibility makes it diffi cult for application on a large scale. A new laboratory stand for studding of anaerobic digestion was developed. Th ree fermentation vessels and automated control system provides fl exibility essential in investigation of digestion of diff erent substrates and testing of diff erent reactors confi gurations. Cheese whey is a troublesome dairy waste, potentially suitable for biogas production. Stable fermentation conditions for whey fermentation were obtained with the organic loading rate of 5 kg COD/m3 and methane production effi ciency of 0,3 m3/kg COD. On the basis of obtained data the size of small biogas plant for average dairy was calculated.
BibTeX:
@article{Jablonski2011,
  author = {Sławomir Jabłoński and Anna Krasowska and Jerzy Januszewicz and Andrzej Vogt and Marcin Łukaszewicz},
  title = {Cascade reactor system for methanogenic fermentation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {37--41},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/65-cascade-reactor-system-for-methanogenic-fermentation}
}
Janczak, D., Wróblewski, G., Jakubowska, M., Słoma, M. and Młoźniak, A. Screen printed resistive pressure sensors fabricated from polymer composites with carbon nanotubes 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 14-19 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents the results of the investigation into fl exible layers based on carbon nanotubes used as measuring layer in force sensor. Results of mechanical fatigue tests show that carbon nanotubes layers are good for reinforcing or as a conductive additive in composite materials. Composition of carbon nanotubes in PMMA polymer resin was prepared by modifi ed mixing process used in thick film material preparation. Sensor structure was fabricated by printing polymer-nanotube areas with polymer-silver paths as connection electrodes on polyester substrate foil. Second type of sensors was prepared with two comb electrodes and single carbon measuring layer. Composite materials were fabricated with diff erent amount of nanotube content: 0,25 wt%, 0,5 wt%, 1 wt% and 2 wt% multiwall carbon naotubes (MWCNT). Diff erent types of carbon-composites measuring layers were compared in the experiment. Results of mechanical fatigue tests conducted on carbon nanotubes layers showed that composition with polymer resin have good adhesion to polymer surface. Experiment shows CNT are good for reinforcing or as a conductive additive in diff erent composite materials. Results of the observations show that dependence between sensor resistance and force tension is linear in logarithmic scale and similar for diff erent samples. Resistance between sensor electrodes was measured for force tension changes in range 10N to 20kN. Better results were observed for sensors with comb electrodes and low content of carbon nanotubes.
BibTeX:
@article{Janczak2012,
  author = {Daniel Janczak and Grzegorz Wróblewski and Małgorzata Jakubowska and Marcin Słoma and Anna Młoźniak},
  title = {Screen printed resistive pressure sensors fabricated from polymer composites with carbon nanotubes},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {14--19},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/109-screen-printed-resistive-pressure-sensors-fabricated-from-polymer-composites-with-carbon-nanotubes}
}
Jaśkiewicz, G. Procedural Content Generation in Game Development Process 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 7-10 
article URL 
Abstract: This article describes procedural content generation algorithms used by an independent video game developer in a level design process for the logical game Keri Tap. Genetic algorithms were used as the computational core of the level generation routines. Th e research that was carried out in order to defi ne good algorithm setup has been described. Main idea of this article is to show that PCG [14] methods can be used by small independent video game developers to gain measurable benefits.
BibTeX:
@article{Jaskiewicz2012,
  author = {Grzegorz Jaśkiewicz},
  title = {Procedural Content Generation in Game Development Process},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {7--10},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/96-procedural-content-generation-in-game-development-process}
}
Jędrych, E., Chudy, M., Dybko, A. and Brzózka, Z. Microfluidic devices — application in anticancer studies 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 3-5 
article URL 
Abstract: A rapidly growing pharmaceutical industry requires faster and more effi cient ways to fi nd and test new drugs. One of the new method for cell culture and examining the toxic eff ects of drugs is application of microfl uidic systems. Th ey provide new types of microenvironments and new methods for investigation of anticancer therapy. Th e use of microsystems is a solution that gives the opportunity to reduce not only cost and time, but also a number of tests on animals. In this paper we present designed and fabricated hybrid microfl uidic systems which are applicable for cell culture, cell based cytotoxicity assays and photodynamic therapy procedures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and sodium glass were used for fabrication of microdevices. Th e designed geometry of the microdevices includes cell culture microchambers and a concentration gradient generator (CGG). Th e CGG enables to obtain diff erent concentrations of tested drugs in a single step, which is a signifi cant simplifi cation of cytotoxicity assay procedure. In the designed microsystems three various cell lines (normal and carcinoma) were cultured and analyzed.
BibTeX:
@article{Jedrych2012,
  author = {Elżbieta Jędrych and Michał Chudy and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {Microfluidic devices — application in anticancer studies},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--5},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/83-microfluidic-devices-application-in-anticancer-studies}
}
Jędrych, E., Mazur, M., Grabowska-Jadach, I. and Brzózka, Z. New microfluidic device for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity analysis 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 3-8 
article URL 
Abstract: In this paper, we present cytotoxicity analysis (determination of lactate dehydrogenase — LDH activity performed in a designed and fabricated microfl uidic system. Th is method allowed for analysis of a supernatant collected from A549 (human lung cancer) and HT-29 (human colon cancer epithelial) cells, which were incubated for 24 h with selected compounds. LDH is an intracellular enzyme present in tissues, which is released into the supernatant caused by membrane damage or cell lyses. In our tests, LDH-Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (BioVision) was used. Th e toxic eff ect of drugs was measured in the developed microsystem made of PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)). Analytical reaction took place in the special designed microchannel geometry. Th en, the LDH activity was measured at 490 nm using spectrophotometer. In subsequent experiments, appropriate conditions for measurements using a microfl uidic system were chosen. It was found that the selected reagent is sensitive to temperature changes and light exposure. Reaction time in the microsystem was determined by changes of fl ow rates of reagents. Afterwards, for the various reaction time, the toxic eff ect of 5-fl uorouracil, celecoxib and 1,4-dioxane was performed. Th e obtained results were compared with the results carried out in 96-well plates. Based on these results, it was noted that the enzymatic reaction time in the microsystem is shorter than in 96-well plate. Moreover, the advantage of using microsystem is also the small amount of reagents.
BibTeX:
@article{Jedrych2012a,
  author = {Elżbieta Jędrych and Małgorzata Mazur and Ilona Grabowska-Jadach and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {New microfluidic device for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity analysis},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {3--8},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/107-new-microfluidic-device-for-lactate-dehydrogenase-ldh-activity-analysis}
}
Jędrych, E., Pawlicka, Z., Chudy, M., Dybko, A. and Brzółzka, Z. Photodynamic therapy procedures in the microfl uidic system 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 30-33 
article URL 
Abstract: Evaluation of the effi ciency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a hybrid microfl uidic culture system was studied. Th e geometry of the utilized microsystem for PDT procedures consists microchambers for cell culture and microchannels, which create a concentration gradient generator (CGG). 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of the photosensitizer was used. The geometry of the microchip allowed to test diff erent concentrations of ALA in a single assay. Evaluation of the effi ciency of photodynamic therapy was determined 24 hours after PDT procedure (irradiation with light which induced accumulated in carcinoma cells). Th e performed microsystem contained two independent micropatterns, that enables examination simultaneously various cell lines (carcinoma and normal) or various photosensitizers.
BibTeX:
@article{Jedrych2010,
  author = {Elżbieta Jędrych and Zuzanna Pawlicka and Michał‚ Chudy and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzółzka},
  title = {Photodynamic therapy procedures in the microfl uidic system},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {30-33},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/125-photodynamic-therapy-procedures-in-the-microfl-uidic-system}
}
Jordaan, T. and Puren, K. “We love this place”: place attachment and community engagement in urban conservation planning 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 39-45 
article URL 
Abstract: Conservation planning becomes signifi cant as globalisation and rapid urbanisation challenge the preservation of historical urban sites. As an integral part of communities’ place identities, the destruction of built heritage for development challenges local identities. Protecting built environment heritages can preserve local identity. Also, a paradigm shift in conservation planning supports including local perspectives and knowledge systems for sustainable urban conservation planning and democratic participation processes.Community engagement in urban conservation planning off ers town planners insight into emotional values that communities attach to built heritages for incorporation in physical planning proposals. Emotional attachments are traditionally not considered as valid constructs in public participation. However, place attachments can propel communities to constructively participate in development processes if such developments strengthen their place identity, or prompt obstruction if communities perceive developments as threats to place identity. Th is research aims to explore communities’ place attachment through community engagement to inform urban conservation planning proposals. An action research approach was followed to explore place attachments associated with built heritage resources in two South African communities, Khuma and Stilfontein. Th e research indicates that specifi cally socio-economic, natural, and aesthetic place attachments assisted the communities to envision urban conservation proposals for future built environments for Khuma and Stilfontein that will be cherished. Th ese proposals were unique for each community due to diff erent underlying place attachments. The implication of this research is that urban conservation should acknowledge communities’ place attachments, as they can optimise the fi t between communities and urban conservation efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{Jordaan2012,
  author = {Tarina Jordaan and Karen Puren},
  title = {“We love this place”: place attachment and community engagement in urban conservation planning},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {39--45},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/103-we-love-this-place-place-attachment-and-community-engagement-in-urban-conservation-planning}
}
Jurkiewicz, A. and Pyryev, Y. Relationship in between compression of the rollers and contact area width and the clamp force 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 31-36 
article URL 
Abstract: In an offset printing machine the rollers (ink unit) and the cylinders (printing unit) are in contact in a lot of places. The contact surfaces comprise a metal surface and a rubber surface. As appears from findings based on the professional literature and experience of people working in printing houses the issue of contact between ink rollers and printing cylinders in an offset printing machine is of great importance. It has impact on the quality of printouts (generation of printouts errors), consumption of energy, time of making the printing machine ready for operation, wear of the machine’s components and related consumables like ink, dampening solution, paper, ink rollers, plate. During the theoretical studies, the equations were derived to show how the rollers compression depends on the contact area width and clamping force. The equations involve Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of rollers’ materials. The difference between these equations and the so far existing equations has resulted from changing the place of applying the clamping force and involving Poisson’s ratio. The paper includes the comparison of the aforesaid new equations and those known from the literature. Moreover, the relationship in between the contact area width and the compression of metal roller and rubber-covered roller was subject to experimental attempts aimed at verification of the equation presented. In order to measure the rollers compression a clock sensor was used, and for measurement of the contact area width – a device called Roller Nip Control. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper and are compared with the results obtained from the equation derived in the course of theoretical studies using the analytical method.
BibTeX:
@article{Jurkiewicz2013b,
  author = {Agnieszka Jurkiewicz and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Relationship in between compression of the rollers and contact area width and the clamp force},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {31--36},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/158-relationship-in-between-compression-of-the-rollers-and-contact-area-width-and-the-clamp-force}
}
Jurkiewicz, A. and Pyryev, Y. Analysis of pressure force between two cylinders 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 10-14 
article URL 
Abstract: Cylinders are very important elements in an offset printing machine because after being supplied with ink they transfer a printing image on paper. A type of setting as regards the stress between cylinders affects quality of printouts as well as rate of wear and tear of operating materials and machine’s elements. It is of great importance to provide for accurate calculation of stress force between two cylinders because this allows for setting an adequate contact zone width and cylinders indentation. In the printing unit of the offset machine there occurs contact between a metal cylinder and cylinder with fixed rubber blanket. Th e said blanket is composed of some layers, where one of them is a compressible layer. Th erefore, the problem is not of trivial nature, as the blanket is made of a non-linear material.
BibTeX:
@article{Jurkiewicz2012,
  author = {Agnieszka Jurkiewicz and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Analysis of pressure force between two cylinders},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {10--14},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/73-analysis-of-pressure-force-between-two-cylinders}
}
Jurkiewicz, A. and Pyryev, Y. Problems regarding stress between offset printing rollers 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 27-30 
article URL 
Abstract: At present, companies show particular care about quality and profit which are inherent with costs. An in adequately set stress between the printing rollers may significantly worsen the quality and increase costs of printing. Until now, a contact between rollers used to be set by a printer, where it was based on his experience. A width of the surface contact was measured or a distance between the form plate or the rubber to the bearer rings (rings made of hardened metal) was calculated. Th is paper includes a presentation regarding an attempt to solve the contact-related problems by way of mathematical methods.
BibTeX:
@article{Jurkiewicz2011,
  author = {Agnieszka Jurkiewicz and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Problems regarding stress between offset printing rollers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {27--30},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/27-problems-regarding-stress-between-offset-printing-rollers}
}
Jurkiewicz, A., Pyryev, Y. and Kowalczyk, J. Printouts' Quality Depending on Too Small Pressure of a Blanket Cylinder Against an Impression Cylinder and a Plate Cylinder in Offset Machine 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 12-17 
article URL 
Abstract: It has been written in many books that correct setting of clamp in a printing offset machine has impact on wear of consumables and machine elements, and quality of printouts. However there has been no clear recipe to do that. In our article we present research on effect of too small pressure between a blanket cylinder against a plate cylinder and an impression cylinder. The challenge was to find method for gaining results of printing with different clamp but with the same printing conditions. During printing, especially when the printing machine stops and starts, a balance between ink and dampening solution is changing. To obtain the same printing conditions with different clamp on the blanket cylinder under blanket, there were fixed underlay sheets with the same thickness and width but different length. To reduce influence of variable thickness of glue the underlay sheets was glued to each other only on the one edge. We printed on two kind of papers: coated and uncoated. The amount of ink transported on paper was adjusted by changing rotation of the ink fountain roller. The spectrophotometer was used to measure optical density. The tone value increase was computed with Murray-Davies equation. While the tone value increase and optical density are very important printout parameters, our research shows how change of pressure changes printing quality. Our results also help to understand behavior of ink under pressure. Depending on paper and clamp ink could penetrate into the paper or spreads on the paper surface.
BibTeX:
@article{Jurkiewicz2013a,
  author = {Agnieszka Jurkiewicz and Yuriy Pyryev and Jan Kowalczyk},
  title = {Printouts' Quality Depending on Too Small Pressure of a Blanket Cylinder Against an Impression Cylinder and a Plate Cylinder in Offset Machine},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {12--17},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/163-printouts-quality-depending-on-too-small-pressure-of-a-blanket-cylinder-against-an-impression-cylinder-and-a-plate-cylinder-in-offset-machine}
}
Jurkiewicz, J. and Nowiński, A. Towards Finding Scholarly Articles in Internet Using Hadoop MapReduce with Oozie Workflow 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 3-6 
article URL 
Abstract: An article focuses on the new methods for automatic processing and analysis of the scientific papers. It covers the very first part of this task – discovery and harvesting of scientific publications from the internet. Article is focused on discovery and analysis of the html documents to identify publication resources. Usage of data from Common Crawl project allows operating on large subset of the web pages without a need to perform an expensive crawl of the WWW. We present methods for automatic identification of pages describing scholarly documents in WWW network using html meta headers. Presented set of rules applied to the data achieves reasonable quality. A system based on these tools is also presented. It allows easy operating and transferring output to the COntent ANalysis SYStem(CoAnSys) - a processing and analysis system developed in ICM. For achieving this goal set of MapReduce tasks running with Hadoop And Ozzie has been used. The quality and efficiency of described rules are discussed. Finally future challenges for our system are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Jurkiewicz2013,
  author = {Jakub Jurkiewicz and Aleksander Nowiński},
  title = {Towards Finding Scholarly Articles in Internet Using Hadoop MapReduce with Oozie Workflow},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {3--6},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/161-towards-finding-scholarly-articles-in-internet-using-hadoop-mapreduce-with-oozie-workflow}
}
Kajetan Dzierżanowski, S.W.G. Use of trees for reducing particulate matter pollution in air 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 69-73 
article URL 
Abstract: Adverse health eff ects of environmental pollution is a frequent subject of medical and veterinary studies. One of the most dangerous air contaminants is particulate matter (PM). Planting trees as biological fi lters is considered as a valuable way of reducing number of particles in air. However, there is not enough research on selecting the most effi cient plant species/varieties for accumulation of these pollutants. In this study, fi ve commonly cultivated tree species were compared: silver birch, Simon’s poplar, callery pear ‘Chanticleer’, northern red oak and Swedish whitebeam, to identify the diff erences in accumulation levels of PM on leaf surface. Results showed that all of the tested species accumulated high amounts of PM. Whitebeam and birch were most eff ective in capturing particles, while lowest levels were found on oak.
BibTeX:
@article{Dzierzanowski2011,
  author = {Kajetan Dzierżanowski, Stanisław W. Gawroński},
  title = {Use of trees for reducing particulate matter pollution in air},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {69-73},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/17-use-of-trees-for-reducing-particulate-matter-pollution-in-air}
}
Karina Ziółkowska Michał Chudy, A.D.Z.B. ‘Lab-on-a-chip’ for cell engineering: towards cellular models mimicking in vivo 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 79-82 
article URL 
Abstract: One of the main scopes of modern cell engineering is development of cellular models that can replace animals in drug screening and toxicological tests, so called alternative methods. Construction of the alternative model is a very challenging task due to a richness of factors creating the in vivo environment. Th e monolayer cell culture — cultivation of adhesive cells on artifi cial surfaces such as glass or polymer — lack most of the in vivo-like interactions, but still is the only tool for the majority of applications. One of the most prospective approaches on mimicking in vivo environment is “Lab-on-a-chip” technology. Microfl uidic devices off er lots of advantages over traditional in vitro culture, e.g. much higher cell volume-to-extracellular fl uid volume ratio or possibility of regulation of hydrodynamic stress. Th is presentation aims to introduce latest advances of our team in microfl uidic cell culture devices. Our novel approach is to cultivate three dimensional multicellular aggregates (spheroids) in microenvironments arranged in a microfl uidic system. The geometry and materials of the system allow for cultivation, observation and analysis of multicellular spheroids. Th e results presented concern multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) rising from human cancer cells, which are considered to represent most of the conditionings of cancer tumor in vivo. Th e fully developed MCTS microdevice will be a reliable tool for anticancer drug screening, as the results most likely will be in a close accordance with the results obtained in vivo.
BibTeX:
@article{Ziolkowska2011,
  author = {Karina Ziółkowska, Michał Chudy, Artur Dybko, Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {‘Lab-on-a-chip’ for cell engineering: towards cellular models mimicking in vivo},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79-82},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/19-lab-on-a-chip-for-cell-engineering-towards-cellular-models-mimicking-in-vivo}
}
Karsznia, K. and Tarnowska, A. Proposition of an integrated geodetic monitoring system in the areas at risk of landslides 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 33-40 
article URL 
Abstract: The sense of security is being mentioned as one of the most essential human needs. By talking about safety, we understand a lot of factors and aspects that considered together prove its multidimensionality. E.g., you can refer safety to issues such as globalization, demographic changes or functioning of state services. These are examples of issues which, by virtue of the changing conditions of people’s living in contemporary world, never lose their topicality. One from crucial „dimensions” of safety aspect is the spatial information, which is functioning in the world of ICT and modern technologies and is often called geoinformation. Almost all aspects of life of the contemporary man depend on it. This is because almost every object or phenomenon has its location in space and time. Without adequate spatial information it is difficult to imagine a state security, industry or citizens. For example, appropriately presented road networks, power transmission lines, or actually conducted analyses of the transport efficiency or range of phenomena, have a substantial impact on the effectiveness of the public services and the economy. They constitute also a main component of strategic and crisis management. Very important is e.g. a proper coordination of services ensuring public and property safety, in emergency situations of natural phenomena danger (such as floods, landslides) or coordination of the units responsible for country’s infrastructure.
BibTeX:
@article{Karsznia2013,
  author = {Krzysztof Karsznia and Adrianna Tarnowska},
  title = {Proposition of an integrated geodetic monitoring system in the areas at risk of landslides},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {33--40},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/153-proposition-of-an-integrated-geodetic-monitoring-system-in-the-areas-at-risk-of-landslides}
}
Kazimierski, S. Practical Application of An Alternative Solar Position Chart 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 46-50 
article URL 
Abstract: Humans, like every other living organism, are dependant on solar energy. If solar energy is to be used consciously, whether directly or stored, there is a need for precise assessment. The bigger the accuracy of the assessment, the greater the benefi ts of the application of solar energy will be. Th e simplicity and ease of application of a tool for such predictions would lead to solar energy resources assessment on a large scale. Th is would result in greater awareness of the potential of the sun energy and application of the solar energy on a larger scale, with all the benefi ts of using renewable energy resources.
BibTeX:
@article{Kazimierski2012,
  author = {Sebastian Kazimierski},
  title = {Practical Application of An Alternative Solar Position Chart},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {46--50},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/79-practical-application-of-an-alternative-solar-position-chart}
}
Khorovetska, Y.M. Interaction of the City Integrant (on the Example of Northern Kazakhstan Cities) 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 76-78 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Khorovetsk2011,
  author = {Yevgeniya M. Khorovetska},
  title = {Interaction of the City Integrant (on the Example of Northern Kazakhstan Cities)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {76--78},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/39-interaction-of-the-city-integrant-on-the-example-of-northern-kazakhstan-cities}
}
Khorovetska, Y.M. Socially-functional Researches in Town-Planning (on the Example of Northern Kazakhstan Cities) 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 79-80 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Khorovetsk2011a,
  author = {Yevgeniya M. Khorovetska},
  title = {Socially-functional Researches in Town-Planning (on the Example of Northern Kazakhstan Cities)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {79--80},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/40-socially-functional-researches-in-town-planning-on-the-example-of-northern-kazakhstan-cities}
}
Kluczuk, P. Comparison of selected methods of assessment of effectiveness and risk of the construction investment projects 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 44-48 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents two methods of assessment of eff ectiveness and risk of construction investment projects. Th ere are compared: one of the probabilistic-statistical methods and Monte Carlo simulation method. Th e comparative analysis was performed on the example of a specifi c investment which was the high standard hotel-conference centre. Th e risk assessment of projects,including construction projects, appears to become necessary. Nowadays, in an era of uncertainty resulting from the recent global fi nancial crisis, it is especially important. Methods described in this paper allow estimating the risk and helping potential investor to take appropriate decisions.
BibTeX:
@article{Kluczuk2011,
  author = {Paweł Kluczuk},
  title = {Comparison of selected methods of assessment of effectiveness and risk of the construction investment projects},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {44--48},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/52-comparison-of-selected-methods-of-assessment-of-effectiveness-and-risk-of-the-construction-investment-projects}
}
Konopka, M. Historical Architectural Detail in the Landscape of the 21st Century on the Example of the Train Building Development of Opole Silesia 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 49-53 
article URL 
Abstract: The train building development coming into existence in Poland since 1842 was ruled by its own laws. Owing to its ennobling character, it was modelled on majestic patterns of recognised architecture. Th e expression of its form was emphasised with numerous details which with time underwent a specifi c transformation. After the Second World War this process was stopped. Attempts of the reconstruction of old objects and erecting new ones demonstrate signifi cant ignorance in view of the historical and aesthetic values of train buildings. Th is translates directly into the actual impoverishment of the architectural detail on railways and breaking the natural cycle of the development of construction.
BibTeX:
@article{Konopk2011,
  author = {Marek Konopka},
  title = {Historical Architectural Detail in the Landscape of the 21st Century on the Example of the Train Building Development of Opole Silesia},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {49--53},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/53-historical-architectural-detail-in-the-landscape-of-the-21st-century-on-the-example-of-the-train-building-development-of-opole-silesia}
}
Kowalik, P. Chemical pretreatment of formaldehyde wastewater by selected Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 42-48 
article URL 
Abstract: Chemical oxidation processes: Fenton process and catalytic ozonation with Mn2+ ions were investigated for eff ectiveness of formaldehyde (FA) oxidation. Th e infl uence of operational variables — O3, H2O2, Mn2+ and Fe2+ concentrations and reaction time were investigated. Researches were carried out on aqueous solution of FA, which concentration was 500 mg/l. Fenton process was investigated at pH 3 and catalytic ozonation at pH 7, 10 and 12. Results revealed that Fenton process was much more eff ective in FA degradation than catalytic ozonation with Mn2+ as a catalyst. Th e optimal H2O2/Fe2+ dosage for a Fenton process was 2000/1000 mg/l. COD and FA concentrations were reduced 59,6% and 79,5%. In case of catalytic ozonation with Mn2+ the eff ectiveness was much less and it was the biggest at pH 12 and Mn2+ dosage 25 mg/l where COD and FA concentration were reduced 14% and 38%. Th erefore, Fenton process can be promising technology for FA wastewater pretreatment.
BibTeX:
@article{Kowalik2011,
  author = {Paweł Kowalik},
  title = {Chemical pretreatment of formaldehyde wastewater by selected Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {42--48},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/66-chemical-pretreatment-of-formaldehyde-wastewater-by-selected-advanced-oxidation-processes-aops}
}
Kołakowska, M. and Świerczyńska, E. Selected aspects of using terrestrial laser scanning technology as the source of additional data for building information modeling 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 26-32 
article URL 
Abstract: Building Information Modeling is the concept of a digital presentation of the physical and functional properties of an object. This paper presents proposal of use of terrestrial laser scanning technology to complement and verify created three-dimensional models of objects. The issue of the article focuses on the technical aspects of data collection from terrestrial laser scanning and its use in the information system of the building. During the field work authors carried out an experimental measurements of office space by phase laser scanner Z+F Imager 5006h. These data were treated as experimental material to test common methods of calculating the transformation parameters of three-dimensional systems, which are used in the calibration of individual scans and fitting them into the given coordinate system. This step is have a significant effect on the accuracy of the spatial model. The measurement experiment confirmed the need for calibration point clouds based on the largest possible number of tie and enabled to propose an inventory technology of long and slender buildings. It uses the connection between terrestrial laser scanning and conventional tacheometric measurements. This solution will reduce errors transferred to another position in the construction of the traverse. The article also deals with problems related to inventory of architectural and construction aspects of buildings and vectorization integrated point cloud in order to develop plans for the buildings or the measurement of specific surface areas. Creation of the models, on the basis of spatial point cloud built from the line of discontinuity is difficult due to: the impact of calibration errors, causing the displacement between cans and blur single scan points belonging to the same surface. Based on the performed studies it was found that the most important advantage of terrestrial laser scanning is possibility to collect in a short time a large number of points representing the actual state of the object, not the design intent. Using laser scanning we can significantly reduce the time spent directly at site, and perform measurement in dark areas. This technology also has a particular application for creating BIM for the modern buildings with complex geometric form, for which the accuracy and timeliness of the created model can be crucial for cost, speed and ease of execution of individual works. In this paper authors will attempt to assess the effectiveness of the application of the presented technology for building information modeling.
BibTeX:
@article{Kolakowska2013,
  author = {Maria Kołakowska and Ewa Świerczyńska},
  title = {Selected aspects of using terrestrial laser scanning technology as the source of additional data for building information modeling},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {26--32},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/166-selected-aspects-of-using-terrestrial-laser-scanning-technology-as-the-source-of-additional-data-for-building-information-modeling}
}
Król-Gracz, A., Michalak, E., Nowak, P. and Dyonizy, A. Preparation and characterization of ultra-fine silver bromide suspension 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 38-42 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper present the results of studies on ultra fi ne-crystalline silver bromide suspensions, which were stabilized by gelatin and excess of bromide ions. Relation between dosing rate of reactants to size of obtained silver bromide crystals was investigated. Granulometric properties obtained nanocrystals were studied by turbidity method and by technique of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Additionally, a photomicrograph of suspension using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed.
BibTeX:
@article{Krol2011,
  author = {Agnieszka Król-Gracz and E. Michalak and P. Nowak and A. Dyonizy},
  title = {Preparation and characterization of ultra-fine silver bromide suspension},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {38--42},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/30-preparation-and-characterization-of-ultra-fi-ne-silver-bromide-suspension}
}
Krupa, A. Application of modern semiconductor devices from silicon carbide for the construction of the synchronous rectifiers 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 13-15 
article URL 
Abstract: In low-voltage isolated DC-DC converters, power losses due to the conduction of rectifying devices are signifi cant. Using synchronous rectifi ers instead of the conventional fast recovery diodes is an eff ective solution to this problem in most topologies. Th is paper provides results of computer simulation in PSpice of implementation SiC (silicon-carbide) diode in synchronous rectifi er topology and shows advantages of this solution.
BibTeX:
@article{Krup2011,
  author = {Adam. Krupa},
  title = {Application of modern semiconductor devices from silicon carbide for the construction of the synchronous rectifiers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {13--15},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/23-application-of-modern-semiconductor-devices-from-silicon-carbide-for-the-construction-of-the-synchronous-rectifiers}
}
Krzysztof Rafał, M.B.-R. Synchronization of Three-Phase PWM Rectifiers with Unbalanced and Distorted Grid Voltage 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 45-50 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents method of synchronization of three-phase PWM rectifi er with unbalanced and distorted grid voltage. An algorithm to extract symmetrical components from instantaneous grid voltages is presented. Phase Locked Loop algorithm is described to synchronize with positive voltage sequence.
BibTeX:
@article{Rafal2011,
  author = {Krzysztof Rafał, Małgorzata Bobrowska-Rafał},
  title = {Synchronization of Three-Phase PWM Rectifiers with Unbalanced and Distorted Grid Voltage},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45-50},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/12-synchronization-of-three-phase-pwm-rectifiers-with-unbalanced-and-distorted-grid-voltage}
}
Krzysztoforski, J., Krasiński, A., Henczka, M., Piętkiewicz, W. and Szwast, M. Influence of supercritical carbon dioxide on structure and mechanical properties of porous polypropylene membranes 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 20-25 
article URL 
Abstract: The influence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) on structure and mechanical properties of porous polypropylene tubular membranes subjected to diff erent process conditions was investigated. Th e membranes were treated with scCO2 at pressure of 18 MPa and at three diff erent temperatures (40°C, 70°C, and 100°C) for 2 h in a batch reactor. Th e obtained samples were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the impact on the membrane structure, tensile testing for ultimate strength assessment, and bubble point test for determination of the pore size distribution and the fi ltration coeffi cient (UFC). A membrane not treated with scCO2 was used as reference sample for comparison. SEM pictures of side surfaces and cross-sections of treated tubular membranes did not reveal any changes in membrane structure. Tensile testing of treated and non-treated samples showed that after scCO2 treatment the ultimate strength slightly decreased (less than 10%), while the Young’s modulus was reduced by almost 50%. Th e bubble point test showed that scCO2 causes an increase in the number of pores and an increase in the UFC value. In the range 40–100°C no signifi cant temperature dependence was observed. Th e results confi rm that supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a medium in porous polypropylene membrane production, maintenance and modifi cation.
BibTeX:
@article{Krzysztoforski2012,
  author = {Jan Krzysztoforski and Andrzej Krasiński and Marek Henczka and Wojciech Piętkiewicz and Maciej Szwast},
  title = {Influence of supercritical carbon dioxide on structure and mechanical properties of porous polypropylene membranes},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {20--25},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/110-influence-of-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-on-structure-and-mechanical-properties-of-porous-polypropylene-membranes}
}
Krzyżkowski, J. and Pyryev, Y. Cylinder Gap Shock and its Impact on Quality of Prints in Offset Printing Technique 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 23-30 
article URL 
Abstract: There are many factors in offset printing technique, which determine the final quality of the printouts. Next to ink, dampening liquid and paper properties, significant role plays here construction of printing unit and its technical condition. Many works, where problem of vibrations was investigated, point canals in plate and blanket cylinders as source of vibrational excitation in printing unit. The canals may generate vibrations of inking and dampening rollers, as well cylinders themselves. If wear of bearings, looseness and unbalance of rotating cylinders and rollers will be additionally taken into account, there may be expected, that excited vibrations will seriously influence on the results obtained during printing process. Some undesired artifacts, for instance, cross stripes may be noticeable on the prints then. The main scope of the researches presented in this paper was to find relation between vibrations in offset printing unit and their influence on quality of the printed image. For this purpose, while printing, measurements of vibrations of printing unit have been made. Afterwards printed test image have been precisely analyzed in search of undesired phenomena, which can be an effect of excessive vibrations in printing unit. Then comparison between position of the artifacts on the prints and the results of vibration measurements has been made. Effects of the experiment are presented in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Krzyzkowski2013,
  author = {Juliusz Krzyżkowski and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Cylinder Gap Shock and its Impact on Quality of Prints in Offset Printing Technique},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {23--30},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/157-cylinder-gap-shock-and-its-impact-on-quality-of-prints-in-offset-printing-technique}
}
Krzyżkowski, J. and Pyryev, Y. Construction of cylinders in offset printing presses and its vibratory consequences 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 15-18 
article URL 
Abstract: Vibrations in off set printing presses are serious problem, which beside infl uence on machines’ parts, are also source of problems with printing process and achieving prints of right quality. In this paper construction of off set printing unit is presented. Reasons of vibrations and their types in printing units are shortly described. Moreover, this article shows the role, which some of printing unit’s elements play in resisting of vibrations appearance. There is model of printing unit of sheet-fed off set printing machine presented in here. Model is described by the system of diff erential parametric equations. Th ere were computer simulations realized, that pointed conditions, which should be fulfi lled, so the parametric vibrations occurred.
BibTeX:
@article{Krzyzkowski2012,
  author = {Juliusz Krzyżkowski and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Construction of cylinders in offset printing presses and its vibratory consequences},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/74-construction-of-cylinders-in-offset-printing-presses-and-its-vibratory-consequences}
}
Krzyżkowski, J. and Pyryev, Y. Analysis of vibration of printing unit of offset printing press 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 31-34 
article URL 
Abstract: There are several causes of vibration of off set printing presses. Major are cyclic work of feeders and deliveries, gaps with mechanisms for fi xing plate and blanket in cylinders of printing pair and inappropriate stress between those cylinders. All mentioned above causes increased exploitation of bearings, gears driving cylinders and other parts of the printing press. The consequences of vibration are also breaking of paper web and such artefacts as doubling and streaking on the prints. In this paper printing pair cylinders of lithographic printing press are described as a two-degree of freedom model. Solution of a system of diff erential equations, which describes this model shows infl uence of vibration of printing unit cylinders on the fl uctuation of the ink fi lm thickness on the prints (magnitude of streaking phenomenon).
BibTeX:
@article{Krzyzkowski2011,
  author = {Juliusz Krzyżkowski and Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Analysis of vibration of printing unit of offset printing press},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {31--34},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/28-analysis-of-vibration-of-printing-unit-of-offset-printing-press}
}
Kulikowska, A., Wasiak, I. and Ciach, T. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Oxidation to Form Aldehyde Group 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 11-18 
article URL 
Abstract: Oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a method of its modification, which allows to improve the functionality of this compound by increasing its reactivity. Presented work describes two methods of oxidation of carboxymethyl cellulose. The first is the conversion of CMC to its dialdehyde derivatives (DCMC) by sodium periodate. In the second method, hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FePcS) as catalyst was applied. Oxidation degree of CMC in different process parameters and time intervals was estimated using hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Modified CMC will be used in nanoparticles preparation in medical diagnostics.
BibTeX:
@article{Kulikowska2013,
  author = {Aleksandra Kulikowska and Iga Wasiak and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Carboxymethyl Cellulose Oxidation to Form Aldehyde Group},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {11--18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/155-carboxymethyl-cellulose-oxidation-to-form-aldehyde-groups}
}
Kuśmirek, E., Hoch, M. and Czopowicz, A. The Effect of Fertilizer Application of Granulated Organic-Mineral Fertilizers Formed from Spent Mushroom Substrate on Crop of Common Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 18-22 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim the research is to estimate the infl uence of granulated organic-mineral fertilizers formed from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) on the common cabbage crop. Fertilizers and composted spent mushroom substrate are using on two doses on account of applicationed nitrogen content, these doses are 100 and 200 kg N ha-1. 10 fertilizers combinations on four replications are used in experiment. Th e test plant was common cabbage. After harvest were estimated yield of green matter and dry matter yield. Statgraphics 4.0. program was using to statistic data processing of the results. Dry matter yield of cabbage depends on the kind and dose of fertilizers applied in the experiment. The greatest yields are obtained from object manured by fertilizer formed from spent mushroom substrate with supplement urea and powdery superphosphate and potassium salt, also fertilizer formed from spent mushroom substrate with supplement ammonium salpeter. Other granuled organic-mineral fertilizers have a positive infl uence on increasing cabbage yield in comparison to the control object, however, their yield eff ect is similar.
BibTeX:
@article{Kusmirek2012,
  author = {Ewa Kuśmirek and Michał Hoch and Agnieszka Czopowicz},
  title = {The Effect of Fertilizer Application of Granulated Organic-Mineral Fertilizers Formed from Spent Mushroom Substrate on Crop of Common Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {18--22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/88-the-effect-of-fertilizer-application-of-granulated-organic-mineral-fertilizers-formed-from-spent-mushroom-substrate-on-crop-of-common-cabbage-brassica-oleracea-l}
}
Kwapiszewska, K., Stepień, K., Sendys, P., Chudy, M. and Brzózka, Z. Potentiometric detection of the metabolic activity of human tumor cells 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 41-46 
article URL 
Abstract: Monitoring of cellular viability is a key part of toxicological assays in vitro. On-line monitoring of metabolic activity would be particularly useful for evaluation of responses to potential therapeutic compounds. Current assays are mostly based on fluorescent dyes and optical detection methods. These methods offer high sensitivity and specificity, however are not suitable for long-term on-line observations. Electrochemical methods can be an alternative for current protocols. Electrochemical detection is low cost and label-free, therefore suitable for long-term cell culture monitoring. In this work investigations on human cancer cells viability will be presented. Cells were cultured as two-dimensional monolayer or three-dimensional spheroids. Different cell culture media were examined. Potentiometric detection was used for continuous monitoring of cell culture as well as end-point investigations. Different growth phases were identified using applied method. Finally, response to an anticancer drug was successfully observed.
BibTeX:
@article{Kwapiszewska2013,
  author = {Karina Kwapiszewska and Katarzyna Stepień and Przemysław Sendys and Michał Chudy and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {Potentiometric detection of the metabolic activity of human tumor cells},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {41--46},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/144-potentiometric-detection-of-the-metabolic-activity-of-human-tumor-cells}
}
Kwapiszewski, R., Chudy, M., Dybko, A. and Brzózka, Z. Development of a Point-of-Care system for early diagnostics of genetic diseases 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 6-8 
article URL 
Abstract: Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) represent a group of more than 45 genetically inherited diseases caused by the absence or defi ciency of one or more specifi c lysosomal enzymes. Nowadays, there is a lack of reports on fast, reliable methods for the diagnostics of LSDs. Currently applied diagnostic approaches generate many false-negative and false-positive results, which results in classifi cation of patients to inappropriate therapeutic groups. Moreover, these methods are time-consuming (even 20 hours), and are carried out only in a few laboratories in the world. Th e goal of this work was to develop a method and a tool, a Point-of-Care system, for diagnostics of LSDs. Th e polymeric microdevice consists of a cell lysis module, a mixing microchannel and an optical detection module. Th e system enables to determine the activity of ?-galactosidase (defi cient in Fabry disease), and to reduce the time of analysis to 10 min. Due to its easy fabrication steps and low price, it seems to be a prospective tool for a point-of-care approach.
BibTeX:
@article{Kwapiszewski2012,
  author = {Radosław Kwapiszewski and Michał Chudy and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {Development of a Point-of-Care system for early diagnostics of genetic diseases},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {6--8},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/84-development-of-a-point-of-care-system-for-early-diagnostics-of-genetic-diseases}
}
Kwapiszewski, R., Chudy, M., Dybko, A. and Brzózka, Z. Miniaturized device for a cell lysis process 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 50-52 
article URL 
Abstract: Single-cell studies are crucial for gaining knowledge on complexity of intracellular processes. In many cases, carrying researches into cell ingredients must be proceeded by a lysis process. Cell lysis leads to disintegration of the plasma membrane which is the barrier separating cell contents from the environment. However, investigations at the cellular level would not be possible without proper miniaturized tools, which off er many advantages as low reagents consumption, short reaction time, integration, automation or versatility. The goal of this work was to design and develop a microfl uidic chip for a chemical cell lysis process. The geometry of a microsystem presented is based on the hydrodynamic focusing of a cell suspension stream. Applying non-denaturing cell lysis buff er enables to analyze released cell ingredients during next steps of investigations.
BibTeX:
@article{Kwapiszewski2011,
  author = {Radosław Kwapiszewski and Michał Chudy and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {Miniaturized device for a cell lysis process},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {50--52},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/33-miniaturized-device-for-a-cell-lysis-process}
}
Kwasniewski, P. Chromatin immunoprecipitation ”new approach for revealing histone modifi cations in plants under heavy metal stress” theoretical review
on advantages, drawbacks and questions
2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 7-10 
article URL 
Abstract: Heavy metal contamination is a major environmental problem. A coordinated network of molecular processes participates in plant response to heavy metals. Th e metal-dependent gene expression is regulated on multiple levels and may include chromatin modifi cations. One of the methods which allows to understand the role of histone post-translational modifi cations in plant cell response to heavy metals may be chromatin immunoprecipitation.
BibTeX:
@article{Kwasniewski2010,
  author = {Piotr Kwasniewski},
  title = {Chromatin immunoprecipitation ”new approach for revealing histone modifi cations in plants under heavy metal stress” theoretical review
on advantages, drawbacks and questions}, journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology}, year = {2010}, volume = {1}, number = {1}, pages = {7-10}, url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/119-chromatin-immunoprecipitation-new-approach-for-revealing-histone-modifi-cations-in-plants-under-heavy-metal-stress-theoretical-review-on-advantages-drawbacks-and-questions} }
Lasek, M. and Lichota, P. Aircraft dynamic model identification on the basis of flight data recorder registers 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 16-20 
article URL 
Abstract: We investigate the problem of an aircraft dynamic model parametric identification using dimensional derivatives as an example. Identification is done in offline mode, in the time domain. Flight parameters used for identification are obtained from Flight Data Recorder, that register them during each scheduled flight. We investigate the possibility of application of Maximum Likelihood Estimation that belongs to the Output Error Methods class. The likelihood function is defined for n-dimensional multivariate normal distribution. Unknown covariance matrix is estimated with the use of measured data and output equation. Output equation is calculated with Runge–Kutta fourth order method. In order to find the cost function minimum we consider using Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm, where derivatives are calculated with central difference formulas and small perturbations theory. Mathematical model of an aircraft is obtained through flight dynamics classical approach. Rigid body model of an aircraft is assumed. Coordinate Systems Transformations are done using Euler’s Rotation Theorem with angle order typical for flight dynamics. Equations of motion are obtained from Newtons Second Law of Motion in body fixed coordinate system Oxyz, that is located at aircraft’s center of gravity. Turbulence is modeled as a bias, and also is an object of identification. We implement this method in Matlab R2009b environment.
BibTeX:
@article{Lasek2013,
  author = {Maciej Lasek and Piotr Lichota},
  title = {Aircraft dynamic model identification on the basis of flight data recorder registers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {16--20},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/140-aircraft-dynamic-model-identification-on-the-basis-of-flight-data-recorder-registers}
}
Legutko, P., Stelmachowski, P. and Kotarba, A. Promotion of iron-oxide with potassium as optimization of the soot combustion catalyst 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 9-11 
article URL 
Abstract: In this work the eff ect of potassium addition to iron oxides (FeO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3) as catalysts for soot combustion was investigated. While the addition of potassium by impregnation had positive eff ect on all oxides the strength of this eff ect varied considerably. Comparison with potassium ferrites (K2Fe22O34, KFeO2), with potassium as a part of a crystal lattice, proved that they were more active than unpromoted oxides. Th e determined range of activity was as follows: FeO < Fe3O4 Fe2O3 K/Fe34 ~ K2Fe22O34 K/Fe2O3 K/FeO ~FeO2.
BibTeX:
@article{Legutko2012,
  author = {Piotr Legutko and Paweł Stelmachowski and Andrzej Kotarba},
  title = {Promotion of iron-oxide with potassium as optimization of the soot combustion catalyst},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {9--11},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/85-promotion-of-iron-oxide-with-potassium-as-optimization-of-the-soot-combustion-catalyst}
}
Lewandowski, A. Closely Intermeshing Counter-Rotating Twin Screw Extrusion of Polymers 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 36-40 
article URL 
Abstract: The state-of-the-art is presented for composite modeling of counter-rotating twin screw extrusion of polymeric materials. The closely intermeshing screw confi guration is considered. A new approach for composite modeling of counter-rotating twin screw extrusion is discussed. Th is approach is based on the three dimensional nonNewtonian FEM simulation of fl ow in an intermeshing modular counter-rotating twin screw extruder. Some experimental and theoretical results of the study are presented. Th e polymer melting behaviour and degree of fi lling of the screw channel during the process, as well as the pressure and temperature developments are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Lewandowski2011,
  author = {Adrian Lewandowski},
  title = {Closely Intermeshing Counter-Rotating Twin Screw Extrusion of Polymers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {36-40},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/10-closely-intermeshing-counter-rotating-twin-screw-extrusion-of-polymers}
}
Linkowski, T.A. and Słobodzian, P.M. Generation of mixed triangular-rectangular meshes of arbitrary planar shapes: an algorithm for the Method of Moments 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 3-6 
article URL 
Abstract: A mesh generation algorithm for the Method of Moments (MoM) is presented here. Mesh of a shape is a set of cells (e.g. triangles) approximating this shape, and meshes are used, among others, in electromagnetic analysis with the MoM. For arbitrary planar shapes, this algorithm (named CGSM) generates a mesh comprised of mixed triangular and rectangular cells. Th e shape(s) to be meshed, described with line segments and arcs, may have any number of holes. Moreover, CGSM can provide non-uniform (denser) mesh near the edges of each shape. In the paper, a brief step-by-step description of CGSM is given, and then two structures are simulated using meshes created by CGSM and commercial software IE3D™.
BibTeX:
@article{Linkowski2012,
  author = {Tomasz A. Linkowski and Piotr M. Słobodzian},
  title = {Generation of mixed triangular-rectangular meshes of arbitrary planar shapes: an algorithm for the Method of Moments},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--6},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/71-generation-of-mixed-triangular-rectangular-meshes-of-arbitrary-planar-shapes-an-algorithm-for-the-method-of-moments}
}
Maciej Polańczyk Przemysław Barański, M.S. Estimation of stereo camera motion 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 27-31 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents an algorithm for estimating the motion of a stereovision camera. Th e movement is calculated on the base of a sequence of depth pictures. While moving the camera can be held in hands without much impact on the prediction accuracy. The algorithm provides real-time data processing when a 2.5 GHz dual core computer is used.
BibTeX:
@article{Polanczyk2011,
  author = {Maciej Polańczyk, Przemysław Barański, Michał Strzelecki},
  title = {Estimation of stereo camera motion},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27-31},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/8-estimation-of-stereo-camera-motion}
}
Magdalena Greluk Zbigniew Hubicki, A.W. Sorption of the acid dyes onto strongly basic anion exchanger: Kinetic and equilibrium studies 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 74-78 
article URL 
Abstract: The strong base acrylic anion exchangers, Amberlite IRA-458, was used as an adsorbent for the investigation of acid dyes (Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 10 and Acid Red 88) adsorption kinetics and isotherms. Th e pseudo-fi rst order and pseudo-second order kinetic models were used to analyze the kinetic data and good agreement between the experimental and calculated amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic models for the entire investigated concentrations domain in the case all three investigated dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models with the best fi tting being the fi rst one.
BibTeX:
@article{Greluk2011,
  author = {Magdalena Greluk, Zbigniew Hubicki, Anna Wołowicz},
  title = {Sorption of the acid dyes onto strongly basic anion exchanger: Kinetic and equilibrium studies},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {74-78},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/18-sorption-of-the-acid-dyes-onto-strongly-basic-anion-exchanger-kinetic-and-equilibrium-studies}
}
Makal, E. Aspects of churches’ adaptation to serve the Orthodox liturgy on the example of the temple in Malczyce 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 87-91 
article URL 
Abstract: In Poland, there are many temples which have been adapted for other than their original purposes. Th e Orthodox, out of necessity of adaptation, comes across, in particular, after the Second World War. In this article, the problem of adaptation of the non- Orthodox churches as an example of the Orthodox church in Malczyce has been described (Lower Silesia Province — woj. dolnośląskie).
BibTeX:
@article{Makal2011,
  author = {Elżbieta Makal},
  title = {Aspects of churches’ adaptation to serve the Orthodox liturgy on the example of the temple in Malczyce},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {87-91},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/21-aspects-of-churches-adaptation-to-serve-the-orthodox-liturgy-on-the-example-of-the-temple-in-malczyce}
}
Maniak, G. and Stelmachowski, P. Application of Kelvin method and mass spectrometry for investigation of oxide catalyst surface properties 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 11-13 
article URL 
Abstract: Many oxides are applied as a catalysts for commercially important processes. Recently, decomposition of nitrous oxide into nitrogen and oxygen have became a topic of vital interest for catalytic chemistry. Two possible ways of deN2O reaction, low temperature and high- temperature, can be distinguished. Promising results were obtained for spinel oxides which contained cobalt. Because of cationic redox route, triggered by electron transfer, of N2O decomposition over these oxides, investigation of their electronic properties was justifi ed. Therefore the work function measurements, using Kelvin method were carried out. Moreover in-situ monitoring of processes occurred at catalyst's surface was performed using mass spectrometry.
BibTeX:
@article{Maniak2010,
  author = {Gabriela Maniak and P. Stelmachowski},
  title = {Application of Kelvin method and mass spectrometry for investigation of oxide catalyst surface properties},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11-13},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/120-application-of-kelvin-method-and-mass-spectrometry-for-investigation-of-oxide-catalyst-surface-properties}
}
Marczak, B., Butruk, B. and Ciach, T. Functionalization of polyurethane surfaces for further attachment of bioactive molecules 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 9-13 
article URL 
Abstract: The challenge for cardiovascular tissue engineers is to design hemocompatible biomaterials that promote neo-tissue formation. Cardiovascular implants are prone to occlusion caused by surface thrombogenicity. In native tissue non-thrombogenic surface is provided by the endothelium. Endothelialization of implantable cardiovascular devices is thereby among the techniques of functionalizing biomaterials. Surfaces covered with peptides have been shown to enhance endothelial cells adhesion and proliferation. For the purpose of further cell-specifi c peptides immobilization, a three-step method for incorporating carboxyl groups onto a polyurethane surface was developed. In the fi rst step silanol groups were incorporated into the polyurethane surface. Successful reaction was proven by FTIR analysis. Subsequently, incorporation of surface amine groups was proceeded. In the last step amine groups were acylated using glutaric anhydride to create carboxylates. To determine the presence of surface functional groups, colorimetric method was applied. Measurement of water contact angle revealed signifi cant increase in surface hydrophilicity.
BibTeX:
@article{Marczak2012,
  author = {Barbara Marczak and Beata Butruk and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Functionalization of polyurethane surfaces for further attachment of bioactive molecules},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {9--13},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/108-functionalization-of-polyurethane-surfaces-for-further-attachment-of-bioactive-molecules}
}
Marta Bojarska Maciej Szwast, W.P. New composite polymer membranes for biogas separation 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 65-68 
article URL 
Abstract: Biogas can be used as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately presence of carbon dioxide in a composition of biogas makes compression and transportation diffi cult. In addition CO2 makes biogas lower calorifi c. Th at is why new methods for carbon dioxide separation from biogas are to be explored. Obtained results for polypropylene membranes modifi cations by polydimethylosiloxanes are presented in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Bojarska2011,
  author = {Marta Bojarska, Maciej Szwast, Wojciech Piątkiewicz},
  title = {New composite polymer membranes for biogas separation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65-68},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/16-new-composite-polymer-membranes-for-biogas-separation}
}
Michlovská, L., Vojtová, L., Mravcová, L. and Jančár, J. Thermogelling water solutions of multifunctional macromonomers based on PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 12-15 
article URL 
Abstract: Biodegradable thermosensitive triblock copolymers based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly[(lactic acid)-co-(glycolic acid)](PLGA-PEG-PLGA) with PLGA/PEG weight ratio in the range of 1.5–3.0 and LA/GA molar ratio equal to 2.4 or 3.0 were prepared via ring opening polymerization (ROP). Prepared copolymers were subsequently modifi ed in “one pot” by itaconic anhydride (ITA) in order to functionalize both ends with carboxylic acid groups and reactive double bonds. Chemical structure was characterized by means of gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Aqueous solutions of both modifi ed and unmodifi ed copolymers are able to form free fl owing sol at room temperature and clear gel at temperature around 37°C. Th erefore, sol-gel transitions of PLGA-PEG-PLGA and ITA/PLGA-PEG-PLGA/ITA copolymers in aqueous solutions were investigated using test tube inverting method. No mater if copolymer is modifi ed or not, it was found that the critical gel temperature (CGT) increased when the PLGA/PEG weight ratio dropped from 2.5 to 2.0 and that the critical gel concentration (CGC) grew up with decreasing molar ratio of LA/GA from 3.0 up to 2.4. However, in all cases the ITA functionalization improved sol-gel characteristics of original PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymer by approaching gel phase to body temperature. As a result, aqueous solution of ITA/PLGA-PEG-PLGA/ITA having LA/GA = 3 and PLGA/PEG = 2 with concentration higher than 6 wt% might be suitable material for biomedical applications as injectable temporary implants.
BibTeX:
@article{Michlovska2011,
  author = {Lenka Michlovská and Lucy Vojtová and Ludmila Mravcová and Josef Jančár},
  title = {Thermogelling water solutions of multifunctional macromonomers based on PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymers},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {12-15},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/4-thermogelling-water-solutions-of-multifunctional-macromonomers-based-on-plga-peg-plga-triblock-copolymers}
}
Mieczkowska, M. and Panfil-Kuncewicz, H. Consumer Perceptions of the Nutrition Labeling of Food Products 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 53-55 
article URL 
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer perceptions and preferences regarding food labeling and the information displayed on the packaging of food products, with particular emphasis on nutrition facts. Th e survey covered 283 respondents who were asked to fi ll out a questionnaire.
BibTeX:
@article{Mieczkowska2011,
  author = {Monika Mieczkowska and Helena Panfil-Kuncewicz},
  title = {Consumer Perceptions of the Nutrition Labeling of Food Products},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {53--55},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/34-consumer-perceptions-of-the-nutrition-labeling-of-food-products}
}
Miller, B.E., Tsoflias, G.P. and Steeples, D.W. Advancements in near-surface seismic refl ection acquisition 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 14-18 
article URL 
Abstract: 3-D seismic refl ection methods have been established as the predominant seismic method for hydrocarbon exploration. While this is true for exploration scale surveys the same is not yet true for near-surface seismic refl ection investigations. While the benefi ts of employing 3-D methods have been documented they are yet to be fully adopted by the near-surface community. Th ere are a number of reasons for this; primary among them is the labor involved with planting and re-cabling large numbers of geophones. Th e amount of time and labor involved in these operations has been a direct hindrance for 3-D investigations of the near-surface. To help overcome these limitations Th e University of Kansas geophysics group has developed a portable, automated seismic data acquisition system, known as the autojuggie. Th e autojuggie allows for effi cient ultra-shallow seismic imaging and is capable of quickly performing non-invasive, high- resolution 2-D or 3-D seismic surveys by deploying a dense array of geophones.
BibTeX:
@article{Brian2010,
  author = {Brian E. Miller and George P. Tsoflias and Don W. Steeples},
  title = {Advancements in near-surface seismic refl ection acquisition},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {14-18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/121-advancements-in-near-surface-seismic-refl-ection-acquisition}
}
Morański, M. Computer vision based navigation systems —requirements and proposed system idea 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 16-18 
article URL 
Abstract: This article highlights the main challenges and constrains concerning computer vision based navigation systems. A few special conditions in which the systems have to work are pointed out. Diff erent approaches to sense the surrounding environment are reviewed. Finally, the navigation system which incorporates two computer vision techniques: time of fl ight and stereovision is proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{Moranski2011,
  author = {Marcin Morański},
  title = {Computer vision based navigation systems —requirements and proposed system idea},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {16--18},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/24-computer-vision-based-navigation-systems-requirements-and-proposed-system-idea}
}
Naradovy, V. Interaction of internal and surface waves in a two-layer fluid with free surface 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 3-9 
article URL 
Abstract: The interaction of internal and surface waves in a two-layer fluid with free surface has been considered. The stability of wave packets propagation on the contact surface and free surface of hydrodynamic system „layer with rigid bottom - layer with free surface” was investigated. The amplitudes of the second harmonics of the elevations of the contact surface and the free surface are investigated
BibTeX:
@article{Naradovy2013,
  author = {Vladimir Naradovy},
  title = {Interaction of internal and surface waves in a two-layer fluid with free surface},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {3--9},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/148-interaction-of-internal-and-surface-waves-in-a-two-layer-fluid-with-free-surface}
}
Nicał, A.K. Economic analysis of the functioning of spin-cast pre-tensioned concrete electric power poles and ferroconcrete poles production plant using the Net Present Value Method 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 54-57 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the investment profi tability of producing spin-cast pre-tensioned concrete electric power poles, used for the construction of overhead power lines of low and medium voltage. Decision-making criterion for an evaluation of profi tability of investment in this case was the Net Present Value. Additionally, the study characterizes the current state of distribution networks of low and medium voltage in Poland and presents the need for modernization, which is planned for the coming years.
BibTeX:
@article{Nical2011,
  author = {Aleksander K. Nicał},
  title = {Economic analysis of the functioning of spin-cast pre-tensioned concrete electric power poles and ferroconcrete poles production plant using the Net Present Value Method},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {54--57},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/54-economic-analysis-of-the-functioning-of-spin-cast-pre-tensioned-concrete-electric-power-poles-and-ferroconcrete-poles-production-plant-using-the-net-present-value-method}
}
Oniszk-Popławska, A. The importance of the economic evaluation of dispersed power generation in the pre-investment phase — agricultural biogas plants 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 23-31 
article URL 
Abstract: In the case of dispersed power generation, such as renewable energy sources (RES), the investment risks are much higher than for fossil fuels. Higher are also the specifi c investment costs per MWel of installed power capacity. Th erefore, the pre-investment phase for such projects should be elaborated with due diligence. In particular it refers to emerging market technologies, where there has been little or no record of their development in the past. Despite various support schemes, a professional feasibility study is not to be aff orded by smaller investors. Th erefore, other simplifi ed tools must be made available for them, especially in the pre-investment phase. In this article agricultural biogas plants (ABP) were chosen to exemplify the complexity of the technoeconomic evaluation of dispersed generation in the pre-feasibility phase.
BibTeX:
@article{Poplawsk2012,
  author = {Anna Oniszk-Popławska},
  title = {The importance of the economic evaluation of dispersed power generation in the pre-investment phase — agricultural biogas plants},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {23--31},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/89-the-importance-of-the-economic-evaluation-of-dispersed-power-generation-in-the-pre-investment-phase-agricultural-biogas-plants}
}
Oniszk-Popławska, A., Matyka, M. and Buss, R. Regional planning for renewable energy sources – new approach 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 37-46 
article URL 
Abstract: The energy market paradigm shift towards the so called “green revolution” assumes that in the next few decades dispersed energy sources will replace centralized generation systems. Despite growing energy related spatial conflicts, already accompanying the development of dispersed generation, it is not clear how to integrate new energy infrastructure into planning procedures. This article presents a new approach at the regional level, by unveiling the technology diffusion theory and its implications for the development planning of renewable energy sources (RES). It suggests how to integrate energy related issues into regional spatial policy, by presenting prospects for agricultural biogas plants (ABPs) in the Lubelskie region, Poland; dwelling on the experiences from a best practice region Lower Saxony, Germany.
BibTeX:
@article{Poplawska2013,
  author = {Anna Oniszk-Popławska and Mariusz Matyka and Roman Buss},
  title = {Regional planning for renewable energy sources – new approach},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {37--46},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/159-regional-planning-for-renewable-energy-sources-new-approach}
}
Orel, V., Gusynin, A., Selezneva, H., Kolesnik, S., Stendyk, H. and Komisarova, H. Segmentation Based on Determinate Chaos of Histological Specimen Images 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 3-8 
article URL 
Abstract: Neuroblastoma is one of the most abundant tumors in infancy and ranks the fourth place among all malignant tumors of children, after acute leukemia, tumors of central nervous system and malignant lymphomas. Histological examination of atypical cell structures is mandatory for diagnosing and forecasting of neoplasm growth .. At present, the image processing of histological specimens is made by a professional histologist manually and is based on visual perception of the histologist. Naturally, visual approach has some shortcomings. Therefore, for objective estimation of medical images, increasing diagnosis accuracy and information processing speed, the computer analysis of histological images is a current need. In this paper, the features of the digital images of histological specimens and methods for digital analysis of medical images are presented. An innovative information system for instant diagnosis of the stage of neuroblastoma based on digital images analysis of histological specimens is developed. In presented studies, a new algorithm, based on deterministic chaos of digital images of histological specimens which uses original formalized indicators (irregularity of contoured zone of diagnostic interest, its structures heterogeneity including cells, nuclei, itochondrion etc.) have been implemented.
BibTeX:
@article{Orel2013,
  author = {Valery Orel and Andriy Gusynin and Hanna Selezneva and Serge Kolesnik and Hanna Stendyk and Helen Komisarova},
  title = {Segmentation Based on Determinate Chaos of Histological Specimen Images},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--8},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/138-segmentation-based-on-determinate-chaos-of-histological-specimen-images}
}
Owczarek, A. PCA based modifi cation of SIFT-like methods for object class recognition 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 23-26 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper discusses a novel PCA based modifi cation of standard SIFT and PCA-SIFT algorithms for the purpose of object class recognition. New descriptors intended to be simultaneously distinctive enough to describe the diff erence between features belonging to separate categories and general enough to capture the variations among features from the same class are proposed. Th e experimental results, gained for a test database, showing the reliability of introduced approach are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Owczarek2011,
  author = {Agnieszka Owczarek},
  title = {PCA based modifi cation of SIFT-like methods for object class recognition},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {23-26},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/7-pca-based-modifi-cation-of-sift-like-methods-for-object-class-recognition}
}
Pasichny, A. Two Methods of Analysis for Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilizations’ 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 23-25 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents two methods for civilizations’ identifi cation developed for analysis of Samuel Huntington’s concept about the ‘clash of civilizations’ with the help of mathematical methods. General origin and formalization of the problem, theoretical structure of the methods, and the approach for further interconnection of the results with global confl ict dynamics are given.
BibTeX:
@article{Pasichny2012,
  author = {Alexis Pasichny},
  title = {Two Methods of Analysis for Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilizations’},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {23--25},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/100-two-methods-of-analysis-for-huntington-s-clash-of-civilizations}
}
Pereverza, K. Methods for Scenario Development 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 61-63 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper is devoted to scenario development process and methods which are used at diff erent stages of it. Stages of identifi cation of system’s key variables, driving forces and their possible states, assessment of infl uence, generation of scenario confi gurations, and analysis of these confi gurations are described; some methods for these stages are proposed.
BibTeX:
@article{Pereverz2011,
  author = {Kateryna Pereverza},
  title = {Methods for Scenario Development},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {61--63},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/69-methods-for-scenario-development}
}
Pikulski, W. and Sacha, K. Credential Revocation in the RT Framework 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 16-22 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper is focused on nonmonotonicity in trust management models which provide access control mechanisms for distributed systems. The work explains what decentralised systems are, defines a notion of security model nonmonotonicity, presents its types and points out factors that causes trust management model to become nonmonotonic. A result of this analysis is a model for credential revocation in the RT Framework trust management model. When security model allows for credential revocation, it becomes nonmonotonic. Presented model allows to turn it to be temporally monotonic. It allows policy authors to define constraints for roles, and applies those values to credentials. When credential does not comply to defined requirements, it is disregarded. A model is evaluated against sample scenario, which demonstrates how it can be applied to real-life use cases.
BibTeX:
@article{Pikulski2013,
  author = {Wojciech Pikulski and Krzysztof Sacha},
  title = {Credential Revocation in the RT Framework},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {16--22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/150-credential-revocation-in-the-rt-framework}
}
Piotr Bigaj Maciej T. Trojnacki, J.B. Semiautonomy and teleoperation modes of mobile robot IBIS simulation and implementation 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 48-55 
article URL 
Abstract: The work is concerned on the simulation and implementation of teleoperation and semiautonomy modes of IBIS mobile robot. A description of robot construction, used sensors as well as the algorithm for semiautonomy mode of operations is introduced. Simulation environment and experiment with Matlab/Simulink package with Simulink 3D Animation toolbox is discussed. In addition, an experiment on real target/ robot and its results are presented as the scope of work.
BibTeX:
@article{Bigaj2010,
  author = {Piotr Bigaj, Maciej T. Trojnacki, Jakub Bartoszek},
  title = {Semiautonomy and teleoperation modes of mobile robot IBIS simulation and implementation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48-55},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/128-semiautonomy-and-teleoperation-modes-of-mobile-robot-ibis-simulation-and-implementation}
}
Plonis, D. and Malisauskas, V. Cylindrical Phase Shifters with Solid-state Plasma 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 7-9 
article URL 
Abstract: The investigation results of n-InP cylindrical phase shifters with solid-state plasma are presented in this paper. Furthermore, dispersion characteristics of the main mode HE11 of phase shifters with diff erent external dielectric layers are calculated. According to the results of the investigation, the use of TM-15 dielectric and without dielectric is more preferred for phase shifters, as far as they correspond to the phase shifters working range wider in the range of magnetic fl ux density (0–0.5) T.
BibTeX:
@article{Plonis2012,
  author = {Darius Plonis and Vacius Malisauskas},
  title = {Cylindrical Phase Shifters with Solid-state Plasma},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {7--9},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/72-cylindrical-phase-shifters-with-solid-state-plasma}
}
Przemysł‚aw Barański Maciej Polańczyk, P.S. Application of stereovision, digital maps and inertial sensors for estimation of geographical location 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 65-68 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents an approach that integrates stereoscopic images, numerical maps of terrain and inertial sensors’ signals for estimation of geographical location of system user. Th e proposed solution improves on the GPS system in terms of accuracy and it can be used also inside buildings where GPS readouts are not available. Th e system was designed with a view of blind pedestrians. The prototype employs the particle fi ltering algorithm to fuse data from diff erent sources.
BibTeX:
@article{Baranski2010,
  author = {Przemysł‚aw Barański, Maciej Polańczyk, Paweł‚ Strumiłło},
  title = {Application of stereovision, digital maps and inertial sensors for estimation of geographical location},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {65-68},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/131-application-of-stereovision-digital-maps-and-inertial-sensors-for-estimation-of-geographical-location}
}
Przyłuski, M. On asymptotic stability of a linear difference equation depending on parameters 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 11-14 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper focuses on a linear diff erence equation depending on parameters. The equation is related to Good win’s theory of extrapolative expectations. Th e stability region of the equation is investigated. Conditions for asymptotic stability are formulated and presented as an optimisation problem, which is further analysed. Despite employing state-of-the-art solvers, numerical results have turned out to be too ambiguous to provide the basis for definite conclusions about the investigated stability region.
BibTeX:
@article{Przyluski2012,
  author = {Michał Przyłuski},
  title = {On asymptotic stability of a linear difference equation depending on parameters},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {11--14},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/97-on-asymptotic-stability-of-a-linear-difference-equation-depending-on-parameters}
}
Pytlowany, T. Influence of the slipe effect on simply supported composite beam 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 44-49 
article URL 
Abstract: The work concerns the slip eff ect which may occur in simply supported composite beams. Th e occurrence of the slip eff ect may lead to additional increase in beam defl ection. The main reason for the increase is susceptibility of the anchor bolts that join the beam. Th e analysis of the slip eff ect occurrence is based on the following criteria: steel and concrete are linearly elastic, junction goes along the whole length of the considered beam, concrete slab and steel rib move by the same value along the whole length of the beam, simply supported beams are analysed. In order to present the slip eff ect in composite beams and its results, a numerical example is used. The example shows three kinds of the load capacity of anchor bolts as well as their impact on the slip eff ect and defl ection of steel-concrete composite beams.
BibTeX:
@article{Pytlowany2012,
  author = {Tomasz Pytlowany},
  title = {Influence of the slipe effect on simply supported composite beam},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {44--49},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/92-influence-of-the-slipe-effect-on-simply-supported-composite-beam}
}
Rogulski, M. The concept of a central system collecting data on the use of the environment 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 32-36 
article URL 
Abstract: The article presents the current stage of development of the process of collecting data on the use of the environment by entities using environment and also identifi es its weak areas. Setting up a central information system is suggested; its task would be to collect consistent data on emissions and to share the data with all stakeholders. Basic assumptions to be fulfi lled by the system are proposed that would improve the task of reporting for operators as well as for those who collect and process data.
BibTeX:
@article{Rogulski2012,
  author = {Mariusz Rogulski},
  title = {The concept of a central system collecting data on the use of the environment},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {32--36},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/90-the-concept-of-a-central-system-collecting-data-on-the-use-of-the-environment}
}
Rogulski, M. The methods of solving the multiscenario model of joint balancing energy and power reserves 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 3-7 
article URL 
Abstract: Article concerns a joint model of balancing energy and power reserves for the energy system which takes into account power and regulation reserves. Admission a varied situations of using energy from the system power reserves causes, that characterizes this model with a vast complexity of calculation. The aim of this paper is to present practical ways to solve this problem using several proposed heuristic algorithms of reduction scenarios. Th eir quality was presented at the sample data.
BibTeX:
@article{Rogulski2011,
  author = {Mariusz Rogulski},
  title = {The methods of solving the multiscenario model of joint balancing energy and power reserves},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3-7},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/2-the-methods-of-solving-the-multiscenario-model-of-joint-balancing-energy-and-power-reserves}
}
Roik, T., Gavrish, A., Kyrychok, P., Vitsuk, Y. and Dorfman, I. Operating properties of composite antifriction materials on the base of aluminium alloys wastes for printing equipment 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 23-27 
article URL 
Abstract: The questions of using materials for friction units, first of all, the antifriction materials in particular on the aluminium alloy-based metal matrix take a central place in general problem of increasing the polygraph knife-machines quality. Endurance of such equipment determines a level of printing output quality. This paper summarizes the recent developments of aluminium alloy AK12MMgN industrial grinding wastes-based usage for new antifriction materials and knowledge about their manufacturing technology; specific examples will be given. Research results of new composite material physical, mechanical and tribological properties in comparison with cast alloy have been presented. The principle possibility to use the valuable industrial grinding wastes of ferrous and color metals for manufacturing of an effective parts of polygraph machines was shown.
BibTeX:
@article{Roik2013,
  author = {T. Roik and A. Gavrish and P. Kyrychok and Y. Vitsuk and I. Dorfman},
  title = {Operating properties of composite antifriction materials on the base of aluminium alloys wastes for printing equipment},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {23--27},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/151-operating-properties-of-composite-antifriction-materials-on-the-base-of-aluminium-alloys-wastes-for-printing-equipment}
}
Shalukho, A. and Sosnina, E. Technique of a choice the optimal combination of Renewable Energy Sources in the Power Supply System taking into account the random nature of changes in weather conditions 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 19-22 
article URL 
Abstract: In the following paper questions how to increase an effi ciency of renewable energy sources in power supply systems are considered. Th e new additional criterion in choosing a combination of renewable energy sources is off ered — the operational risk of consumer’s electricity (ORCE), which takes into account the random nature of changes in weather conditions. Design procedure ORCE based on application of the portfolio analysis theory is developed.
BibTeX:
@article{Shalukho2012,
  author = {Andrey Shalukho and Elena Sosnina},
  title = {Technique of a choice the optimal combination of Renewable Energy Sources in the Power Supply System taking into account the random nature of changes in weather conditions},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {19--22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/99-technique-of-a-choice-the-optimal-combination-of-renewable-energy-sources-in-the-power-supply-system-taking-into-account-the-random-nature-of-changes-in-weather-conditions}
}
Shea, J., Zachariou, I. and Pasik-Duncan, B. Computational Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Involving Standard Brownian and Fractional Brownian Motion 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 3-12 
article URL 
Abstract: As more applied science researchers are attempting to use Stochastic Diff erential Equations (SDEs) as well as Stochastic Partial Diff erential Equations (SPDEs) in their modeling, especially when involving Fractional Brownian Motion (fBM), one common issue appears: an exact solution cannot always be found. For cases involving SPDEs, exact solutions commonly do not exist and approximation schemes for their solution are typically still in development. Th erefore, in this paper, we test various Numerical methods in solving SDEs and SPDEs with standard BM that have non-linear coeffi cients. In addition we extend our results to problems with fBM.
BibTeX:
@article{Shea2011,
  author = {Jason Shea and Ioannis Zachariou and Bozenna Pasik-Duncan},
  title = {Computational Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Involving Standard Brownian and Fractional Brownian Motion},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--12},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/22-computational-methods-for-stochastic-differential-equations-and-stochastic-partial-differential-equations-involving-standard-brownian-and-fractional-brownian-motion}
}
Sikorska, S. Segmentation with image thresholding algorithms 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 19-22 
article URL 
Abstract: The first step in image analysis and pattern recognition is image segmentation and it is one of the most diffi cult tasks in image processing. It determines the quality of the fi nal result of analysis because it is very important and critical component. Th ere are hundreds of segmentation techniques in literature. Th ere is no single method which can be considered good for all sorts of images and conditions. In many applications of image processing, the gray levels of pixels belonging to the object are substantially diff erent from the gray levels of the pixels belonging to the background. Th resholding then becomes a simple but eff ective tool to separate objects from the background. To improve the segmentation results, a strategy consists in combining algorithms in order to obtain a robust segmentation by exploiting the advantages of one method to reduce the drawbacks of the second one. This paper provides a summary of approaches to image segmentation by thresholding available at the present and describes the properties of diff erent kinds of methods and problems encountered. Th ere will be also presented some advanced algorithms with their practical application.
BibTeX:
@article{Sikorsk2011,
  author = {Sylwia Sikorska},
  title = {Segmentation with image thresholding algorithms},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {19--22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/25-segmentation-with-image-thresholding-algorithms}
}
Simchenko, N. Economic-mathematical methods for evaluating the performance of corporate social responsibility 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 26-32 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the applying of economic-mathematical methods for evaluating the performance of corporate social responsibility in Ukraine. We identifi ed a set of quantitative and qualitative indicators which can estimate the state of socially oriented business management. Th e results of the integral indicators calculating of socially oriented management allowed defi ning the coeffi cients which show the level of company’s reputation. Th e applying of fuzzy sets theory, methods of cointegration analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression allowed evaluating the performance of corporate social responsibility. Th e most important activities which impact on the performance of corporate social responsibility are good business practice in relation to suppliers and other business partners, competency management system, charity, sponsorship activities and regional employment rate.
BibTeX:
@article{Simchenko2012,
  author = {Natalya Simchenko},
  title = {Economic-mathematical methods for evaluating the performance of corporate social responsibility},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {26--32},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/101-economic-mathematical-methods-for-evaluating-the-performance-of-corporate-social-responsibility}
}
Siuda, P. and Sadlej, J. Clathrate hydrates — efficient and clean energy resource 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 49-53 
article URL 
Abstract: Clathrate hydrates are icelike structures in which water molecules form cavities enclathrating many possible types of guest molecules. Among most important representatives of this group of solid structures are methane and carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. Th e fi rst one is widely present in Nature and in the future will serve as an energy resource. Carbon dioxide clathrate hydrate may on the other hand serve as a storage reservoir for this green house gas providing cheap way to lower its emission to atmosphere. Th ose are just two of many more important issues that catalyse growing interest of scientifi c world in clathrate hydrates. Characterisation of their properties is crucial to develop technologies, that will enable us to utilize their manifold possible applications. During this presentation I will discuss some of my investigations concerning NMR properties of clathrate hydrates.
BibTeX:
@article{Siuda2011,
  author = {Paweł Siuda and Joanna Sadlej},
  title = {Clathrate hydrates — efficient and clean energy resource},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {49--53},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/67-clathrate-hydrates-effi-cient-and-clean-energy-resource}
}
Skopińska, A., Starzak, K. and Wybraniec, S. Influence of EDTA on stabilization of decarboxylated betalains 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 29-33 
article URL 
Abstract: Betalains are known to be very sensitive to several factors, including higher temperature, therefore, the studies on their stability are essential for the food industry. In order to determine the stability of betanin derivatives during thermal treatment, a set of degradation experiments was performed, including the protective infl uence of EDTA as a chelating agent. The pigments were dissolved in aqueous solutions of acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol. The studies on thermal degradation of the pigments confi rmed their high lability in all investigated solvents. Under the infl uence of protective activity of EDTA, the rate of the degradation of the decarboxylated betalains was substantially decreased. The analysis of obtained absorption spectra of the degradation products indicated that under the infl uence of EDTA, the products retained the basic chromophoric skeleton.
BibTeX:
@article{Skopinska2012,
  author = {Anna Skopińska and Karolina Starzak and Sławomir Wybraniec},
  title = {Influence of EDTA on stabilization of decarboxylated betalains},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {29--33},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/112-influence-of-edta-on-stabilization-of-decarboxylated-betalains}
}
Skopińska, A., Tuwalska, D., Wybraniec, S., Starzak, K., Mitka, K., Kowalski, P. and Szaleniec, M. Spectrophotometric study on betanin photodegradation 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 34-38 
article URL 
Abstract: Redbeet root (Beta vulgaris L.), used for production of food colorants on a commercial scale [1]. Due to photo-lability of betacyanins, an eff ect of UV-irradiation on betanin degradation in various solutions containing organic solvents was investigated. Organic solvents are used frequently in many stages of pigment preparation or isolation, therefore, knowledge of betalain stability and degradation characteristics in these solutions is essential. Pigment solutions at a concentration of 1 mg/ml were prepared in diff erent solvents: water as well as aqueous solutions of 50% (v/v) acetonitrile, 50% (v/v) methanol or 50% (v/v) ethanol, at the pH range 3–8. Acetate, phosphate and citrate buffers were used for the experiments. As a result of the pigment photo-decomposition, numerous decarboxylated and dehydrogenated derivatives were formed. Spectrophotometric studies enabled determination of the pigment retention (percentage of the pigment residue relative to its initial concentration after decomposition time). The studies demonstrated betanin high lability in all solvents, not only at extreme pH values, but also in the middle pH range which, in general, provides higher stability of betalains.
BibTeX:
@article{Skopinska2012a,
  author = {Anna Skopińska and Dorota Tuwalska and Sławomir Wybraniec and Karolina Starzak and Katarzyna Mitka and Piotr Kowalski and Maciej Szaleniec},
  title = {Spectrophotometric study on betanin photodegradation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {34--38},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/113-spectrophotometric-study-on-betanin-photodegradation}
}
Smolina, I. Structure and phase structure of electro-spark Zr coatings on titanium alloys 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 12-14 
article URL 
Abstract: The article is cover investigation microstructure and phase composition of electro-spark Zr-coatings on titanium base. Coatings were obtained in protective (Ar) and saturation (N2) atmosphere. Th e properties of coatings were investigated by SEM and X-ray diff raction, microstructure and microhardness analysis. It has been shown that microhardness increase till 16 GPa in intermediate layer after ESA in saturation atmosphere.
BibTeX:
@article{Smolin2012,
  author = {Iryna Smolina},
  title = {Structure and phase structure of electro-spark Zr coatings on titanium alloys},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {12--14},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/86-structure-and-phase-structure-of-electro-spark-zr-coatings-on-titanium-alloys}
}
Smolina, I., Franchik, N. and Lobachova, G. The influence condition of electro-spark alloying by Al and sequent laser treatment on surface layer of steel GradeB A284 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 25-28 
article URL 
Abstract: In the present paper structure and properties of alloying by aluminum surface layer of steel GradeB A284, which were obtain by electro-spark alloying (ESA) and sequent laser treatment (LT) are described. Th e properties of coatings were investigated by SEM and X-ray diff raction, microstructure and microhardness analysis. It has been shown that next laser treatment can increase the depth of hardened layer doped with 50 to 80…100 ?m, but in comparison with ESA, reduces the value of microhardness from 10 to 5 GPa.
BibTeX:
@article{Smolina2011,
  author = {I. Smolina and N. Franchik and G. Lobachova},
  title = {The influence condition of electro-spark alloying by Al and sequent laser treatment on surface layer of steel GradeB A284},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {25--28},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/47-the-infl-uence-condition-of-electro-spark-alloying-by-al-and-sequent-laser-treatment-on-surface-layer-of-steel-gradeb-a284}
}
Sosnina, E. and Bedretdinov, R. Development and Research Power-Supply System Model with TCT UCS 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 41-47 
article URL 
Abstract: Problem of upgrading the power quality for household consumers electricity has been considered. It was recommended to use the noncontact thyristor controlled transformer with unidirectional current switches. We conducted a set of calculating the power supply system parameters. This allowed to perform of power supply system elements model tests and to create electric power distribution system simulation model in the program Matlab (Simulink). We conducted research of received model and completed the analysis of modeling results.
BibTeX:
@article{Sosnina2013,
  author = {Elena Sosnina and Rustam Bedretdinov},
  title = {Development and Research Power-Supply System Model with TCT UCS},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {41--47},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/154-development-and-research-power-supply-system-model-with-tct-ucs}
}
Spórna, A., Stalica, P., Jerz, G., Szaleniec, M. and Wybraniec, S. Liquid chromatographic techniques in separation of betacyanins and their derivatives from red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 19-22 
article URL 
Abstract: A study on separation of betacyanins and their decarboxylated as well as dehydrogenated derivatives obtained from red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (IP-HSCCC) was performed. Th e IP-HSCCC process was accomplished in the �head-to-tail’ mode in a solvent system composed of butanol acetonitrile water (5:1:6 v/v/v, acidifi ed with 0.7% trifl uoroacetic acid). Th e HPLC separation was performed in a typical reversed phase mode with mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and diode-array (DAD) detection. Th e chromatographic profi les of betalains obtained in these two techniques were signifi cantly diff erent. In HPLC, the most polar compounds, like betanin and isobetanin, eluted before less polar decarboxylated and dehydrogenated derivatives (mostly degradation products of betanin). In IP-HSCCC, the dehydrogenated derivatives were eluted faster then their non-dehydrogenated analogues. It was observed for the fi rst time that betanin and neobetanin (14,15- dehydrogenated betanin), which are present in many plants containing betalains, had reversed elution orders during chromatographic separation by these two techniques.
BibTeX:
@article{Sporna2010,
  author = {Aneta Spórna and P. Stalica and G. Jerz and M. Szaleniec and S. Wybraniec},
  title = {Liquid chromatographic techniques in separation of betacyanins and their derivatives from red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {19-22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/122-liquid-chromatographic-techniques-in-separation-of-betacyanins-and-their-derivatives-from-red-beet-roots-beta-vulgaris-l}
}
Spórna-Kucab, A., Ignatova, S., Garrard, I. and Wybraniec, S. High salt-solvent systems in separation of betanin and its derivatives from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 57-61 
article URL 
Abstract: A study on a separation of betanin and its decarboxy- and dehydro-derivatives obtained from red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.) using analytical high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC — Dynamic Extractions Ltd., UK) was performed. Th e HPCCC process was accomplished in the ‘tail to head’ mode with three highly polar solvent systems with high salt concentrations: 1-propanol-acetonitrile-saturated ammonium sulphate-water (v/v/v/v, 1:0.5:1.2:1); ethanol-acetonitrile-1- propanol-saturated ammonium sulphate-water (v/v/v/v/v, 0.5:0.5:0.5:1.2:1) and ethanol-1-butanol-acetonitrile-saturated ammonium sulphate-water (volume ratio), 0.5:0.5:0.5:1.2:1). HPLC analysis was performed in a conventional reversed phase mode with diode-array (DAD) detection to characterize the composition of obtained fractions. Th e applied solvent systems enabled the separation of the betalain pigments with high effi ciency for the fi rst time. In the mode of separation selected, the more hydrophobic compounds eluted fi rst as expected. Moreover, for the fi rst time, the applied HPCCC solvent systems generated a separation of 2-decarboxy-betanin from 17- and 2,17-bidecarboxy-betanin as well as from neobetanin and betanin.
BibTeX:
@article{Kucab2012,
  author = {Aneta Spórna-Kucab and S. Ignatova and I. Garrard and S. Wybraniec},
  title = {High salt-solvent systems in separation of betanin and its derivatives from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC)},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {57--61},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/81-high-salt-solvent-systems-in-separation-of-betanin-and-its-derivatives-from-red-beet-beta-vulgaris-l-by-high-performance-countercurrent-chromatography-hpccc}
}
Srebro, A. Fault-tolerant algorithm for a mobile robot solving a maze 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 21-29 
article URL 
Abstract: Maze solving problem has been considered since the ancient times. In robotics community this problem is widely known from the ”All Japan Micromouse Competition”. In this paper the author has extended the maze solving problem of cases when some robot distance sensors have been damaged. A new fault-tolerant algorithm for a mobile robot solving a maze is proposed. A dedi - cated simulator has been designed and written in Java to compare several maze solving algorithms for different combination of sensors failures.
BibTeX:
@article{Srebro2013,
  author = {Adam Srebro},
  title = {Fault-tolerant algorithm for a mobile robot solving a maze},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {21--29},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/141-fault-tolerant-algorithm-for-a-mobile-robot-solving-a-maze}
}
Srebro, A. A self-tuning fuzzy PD controller for a wheeled mobile robot operating in the presence of faults 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 11-20 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents a self-tuning fuzzy PD controller designed to improve a control strategy for a wheeled mobile robot. The dynamic model of a two-wheeled mobile robot was implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. In this paper the trajectory tracking problem for a mobile robot in the presence of positioning system faults is considered in detail. Mamdani fuzzy reasoning is used to tune the value of proportional gain Kp and derivative gain Kd of a PD controller. A few simulations comparing the classical PD controller with self-tuning fuzzy PD are reported to show advantage of the designed self-tuning controller.
BibTeX:
@article{Srebro2011,
  author = {Adam Srebro},
  title = {A self-tuning fuzzy PD controller for a wheeled mobile robot operating in the presence of faults},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {11--20},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/61-a-self-tuning-fuzzy-pd-controller-for-a-wheeled-mobile-robot-operating-in-the-presence-of-faults}
}
Srebro, A. Java simulator for an autonomous mobile robot operating in the presence of sensor faults 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 56-60 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper presents two-dimensional mobile robot simulator written in Java. Robot performs autonomous navigation based on infrared sensors. Sensing range and angle can be adjusted in real-time. Obstacle detection an avoidance algorithm was implemented. In this paper, the wall-following problem for mobile robot in the presence of sensors faults is considered in detail. Time related method of robot orientation relative to the wall is shown. A few experimental tests are reported to discuss the robustness of control algorithm and verify simulations results.
BibTeX:
@article{Srebro2010,
  author = {Adam Srebro},
  title = {Java simulator for an autonomous mobile robot operating in the presence of sensor faults},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {56-60},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/129-java-simulator-for-an-autonomous-mobile-robot-operating-in-the-presence-of-sensor-faults}
}
Starzak, K., Skopińska, A. and Wybraniec, S. Spectrophotometric investigation on betanin degradation induced by copper cations 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 44-48 
article URL 
Abstract: Betanin pigment structurally belong to red-violet betacyanins which represent a class of N-heterocyclic water soluble plant pigments providing the colours in a wide variety of fl owers and fruits [1, 2]. Most of betacyanins, such as betanin, are 5-O-glucosides of betanidin (the basic chromophoric aglycone unit). Betanin colorant (E-162) is produced from red beet roots
(Beta vulgaris L.) and is available in concentrates produced by evaporating beet juice under vacuum or as powders made by spray-drying the concentrate. In this study, an eff ect of copper cations on betanin stability was investigated in aqueous and organic-aqueous solutions. Th e presence of organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile) increased substantially the ecomposition of the pigment induced by metal cations in acidic media, for which generally much lower degradation in aqueous solutions was observed. A possibility of a complex formation between betanin and Cu2+ was also stated at pH 7–8 and its relatively high stability in aqueous samples was observed. A presence of numerous products of betanin decomposition was noticed at the wavelength range of 380–500 nm in spectra obtained for the investigated metal cations, especially in the organic-aqueous solutions.
BibTeX:
@article{Starzak2012,
  author = {Karolina Starzak and Anna Skopińska and Sławomir Wybraniec},
  title = {Spectrophotometric investigation on betanin degradation induced by copper cations},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {44--48},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/115-spectrophotometric-investigation-on-betanin-degradation-induced-by-copper-cations}
}
Starzak, K., Skopińska, A. and Wybraniec, S. Research on betanidin oxidation by ABTS radicals 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 39-43 
article URL 
Abstract: Betanidin is a basic betacyanin with 5,6-dihydroxyl moiety which causes its high antioxidant activity. It belongs to betalains, a group of natural, water-soluble plant pigments, which elicit a red-violet coloration of fruits and fl owers. One of the most popular sources of betanidin is red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.). Recent studies have shown importance of betalains oxidation, because of their high natural, antiradical and antioxidant activity and potential benefi ts for human health [1]. An eff ect of oxidation of betanidin using ABTS radicals was investigated in aqueous solutions at pH 3–8 and compared to activity of horseradish peroxidase. Products of the biomimetic betanidin oxidation were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to optical detection and mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). Th e presence of two main oxidation products: 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydro-betanidin and 2,17-didecarboxy-2,3-dehydro-betanidin at pH 3 indicates their generation through two possible reaction ways with two diff erent quinonoid intermediates: dopachrome derivative and quinone methide. Both reaction paths lead to the decarboxylative dehydrogenation of betanidin.
BibTeX:
@article{Starzak2012a,
  author = {Karolina Starzak and Anna Skopińska and Sławomir Wybraniec},
  title = {Research on betanidin oxidation by ABTS radicals},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {39--43},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/114-research-on-betanidin-oxidation-by-abts-radicals}
}
Stobinska, M., Urbanski, D. and Bartkowiak, A. Influence of Ionic Liquids on growth of Escherichia coli strain possessing ß-galactosidase activity 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 38-40 
article URL 
Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) have gained a significant attention as alternative solvents in many chemical and biological reactions. ILs have evolved as a new type of non-aqueous solvents for biocatalysis, because they can stabilize and activate enzymes. Ionic liquids to be considered as so called “green solvents” should possess only very low or no toxicity to living organism and the environment. Currently, very little is known about the biotoxicity of ionic liquids. Within this paper a relative toxicity of two ionic liquids 1,3 dimethylimidazolium methyl sulfate [MMIM][MeSO4] and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [HMIM][Cl]) on the growth of Escherichia coli (E.coli) was evaluated. In this study we focused on ionic liquids, which potentially could increase activity of ?-galactosidase produced by selected strain of E. coli. The inhibition of cell growth in the presence of various ionic liquids was determined using both, solid and liquid cultures. Liquid culture was incubated in culture medium with different concentrations of ionic liquids (0.1, 1, 5, 10% (v/v)). Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of ionic liquids was based on monitoring of E. coli growth by optical density measured at 600 nm using densitometer. In the second method the solid culture plate with addition of various amount of ILs has been used. The number of colonies formed on the solid culture plate was converted to colony forming units (CFUs). The obtained results have confirmed, that prescreening based on cytotoxicity tests is a key element in selection procedure of ILs for any biotechnological processes based on application of microorganisms.
BibTeX:
@article{Stobinska2013,
  author = {Magdalena Stobinska and Dawid Urbanski and Artur Bartkowiak},
  title = {Influence of Ionic Liquids on growth of Escherichia coli strain possessing ß-galactosidase activity},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--40},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/143-influence-of-ionic-liquids-on-growth-of-escherichia-coli-strain-possessing-galactosidase-activity}
}
Strydom, W. and Puren, K. A participatory approach to public space design as informative for place-making 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 33-40 
article URL 
Abstract: Place-making is an empowering process that takes community involvement as point of departure. In South Africa, the planning and design of urban space was previously based on top-down, bureaucratic planning practices that excluded communities from decisionmaking about their neighbourhoods. Together with this, Apartheid policy enforced separate development based on racial grounds, which resulted in communities being relocated to characterless landscapes with limited open spaces. Open spaces are important in low-income high density residential environments as they are prominent public places that form the heart of communities’ social lives. This article reports on the first phase of an on-going research project initiated by Urban and Regional planning at the North-West University, South Africa, that seeks to empower communities to transform local open spaces to vibrant public places. This particular study’s aim was to explore how community involvement can inform the process of place-making. The research was conducted in Ikageng, Potchefstroom, South Africa where the community identified a lack of quality open spaces as a major concern. A qualitative participatory research approach was followed, which included on-site focus group discussions with participants living around an existing open space. Community participation informed place-making in at least two ways: by creating an understanding of the sociospatial dimensions that underlie space and by formulating suggested intervention strategies to address the needs and desires of the community. Suggested interventions include (i) physical interventions (upgrade and beautification of the space), (ii) socialÂÂ interventions (ongoing community involvement) and (iii) economic interventions (creating employment opportunities).
BibTeX:
@article{Strydom2013,
  author = {Wessel Strydom and Karen Puren},
  title = {A participatory approach to public space design as informative for place-making},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {33--40},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/167-a-participatory-approach-to-public-space-design-as-informative-for-place-making}
}
Szponder, D.K. and Trybalski, K. Application of computer image analysis and scanning electron microscopy in environmental engineering and waste management 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 56-62 
article URL 
Abstract: Creation and refi nement of modern research methods in the last century had a signifi cant impact on the dynamic development of various fi elds of science. Special attention deserves computer image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Th ese methods can be used in virtually any fi eld of science dealing with solids. Modern methods have many applications in environmental engineering. Studies, using the above advanced testing methods are also widely used in waste management. The article presents progressive research methodology of using image analysis and scanning electron microscopy in environmental engineering and waste management. It especially presents the application of these methods to determine physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of solid waste.
BibTeX:
@article{Szponder2011,
  author = {Dominika Katarzyna Szponder and Kazimierz Trybalski},
  title = {Application of computer image analysis and scanning electron microscopy in environmental engineering and waste management},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {56--62},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/35-application-of-computer-image-analysis-and-scanning-electron-microscopy-in-environmental-engineering-and-waste-management}
}
Szydełko, A., Urbanek, B. and Moroń, W. The fire hazard during combustion of some alternative fuels 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 53-57 
article URL 
Abstract: Alternative fuels are fuels which include: biomass fuel from waste and sewage sludge. Co-firing biomass with coal is now considered as an effective and financially attractive way the use of biomass for energy production. Perhaps in the future this new technology will replace co-efficient technologies, such as gasification in combination of the gas-steam systems, and the use of gas or ethanol from biomass to value highly efficient fuel cells [1]. The use of coal and biomass mixtures can also be a threat to the safe operation of the plant, including in particular the preparation and installation of the fuel supply. Organic matter in biomass (organic fraction) is a complex mixture of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, humic material-go and fatty acids [2–4]. Self-igniting the fuel can be the result of various factors such as chemical, physical or biological agents stored inside a large amount of organic matter. Self-igniting solid fuels storage depends on many factors such as particle size, nature and type of biomass, coal, the moisture content of the fuel, the storage method and the means of ventilation [5]. In order to determine the self-ignition temperature of coal and of biomass: straw pellets and wood pellets, the method called CPT (Crossing Point Test) [18] was used. Apart from this, the elemental composition of these biomass as well as of coal have been marked.
BibTeX:
@article{Szydelko2013,
  author = {Arkadiusz Szydełko and Bartosz Urbanek and Wojciech Moroń},
  title = {The fire hazard during combustion of some alternative fuels},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53--57},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/146-the-fire-hazard-during-combustion-of-some-alternative-fuels}
}
Tomaszewska, L. Peptone as a nitrogen source for erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 49-52 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Tomaszewsk2012,
  author = {Ludwika Tomaszewska},
  title = {Peptone as a nitrogen source for erythritol production from glycerol by Yarrowia lipolytica yeast},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {49--52},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/116-peptone-as-a-nitrogen-source-for-erythritol-production-from-glycerol-by-yarrowia-lipolytica-yeast}
}
Tomulik, P. and Frączek, J. Remarks on the gluing algorithm for multibody systems co-simulation 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 19-32 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper briefs a part of authors’ study on co-simulation techniques and their application to multibody system dynamics. The main concern of the study is on construction and properties of algorithms that are suitable for such purpose. One of the proposed methods from literature is so-called “gluing-algorithm” by Wang et al. Th ese authors proposed Newton iteration to couple several simulators of mechanical subsystems through constraints/reactions, and provided numerical examples to suggest efficiency of the method. Here we re-investigate the method in order to underline some problems that one might meet when using the “gluingalgorithm”.
BibTeX:
@article{Tomulik2012,
  author = {Paweł Tomulik and Janusz Frączek},
  title = {Remarks on the gluing algorithm for multibody systems co-simulation},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {19--32},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/75-remarks-on-the-gluing-algorithm-for-multibody-systems-co-simulation}
}
Trębala, M. Mechanisms of the potassium stabilization in K2Fe22O34 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 43-45 
article URL 
Abstract: Effect of potassium stabilization in K2Fe22O34, the principal phase of styrene catalyst is caused by doping Cr and Ce. The effect was investigated by means of potassium ion and neutral atom thermal desorption. Th e kinetics for K+ and K emission from undoped and Ce-, Cr-doped b-K2Fe22O34 is studied with the fi eld reversal technique and steady-state mode in high vacuum conditions. Two main mechanisms of the stabilization were developed depending on the dopant location. Chromium is located in the structure of ?-ferrite and slows down the diff usion potassium ion. Cerium segregated at the basal planes favoring the cationic state of potassium inhibits the probability of potassium atoms to leave the K2Fe22O34 surface via work function increase.
BibTeX:
@article{Trebal2011,
  author = {Michał Trębala},
  title = {Mechanisms of the potassium stabilization in K2Fe22O34},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {43--45},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/31-mechanisms-of-the-potassium-stabilization-in-k2fe22o34}
}
Tril, U., M, A., Salejda and Krasnowska, G. Effect of egg-yolk protein addition on the characteristics of model meat products 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(3), pp. 28-32 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the technological, textural, colour and sensory characteristics of model meat products produced with the addition of egg-yolk protein preparation (by-products of phospholipids extraction process at supercritical conditions). Model meat products consisted of pork class I, backfat class I and additives such a NaCl, NaNO2 and sodium isoascorbate. Functional additive (egg-yolk protein preparation) was added at different level of concentration: 0% (C), 2% (P1), 4% (P2) and 8% (P3). Experimental stuffings were heat treated in water bath and stored for 3 weeks under refrigeration. Thermal drip, yield of production process, NaCl, NaNO2 contents, texture profile analysis and physical parameters of colour (according to the CIE L*a*b* colour scale) were determined. Sensory assessment included: overall appearance, colour, odour and consistency of model meat products. It was observed that addition of egg yolk proteins to the model meat products influenced on increasing yield of the production process and on reducing mass losses caused by heat treatment. Furthermore, the addition of protein preparate resulted in increased accumulation of sodium nitrite in experimental products, what may be take into consideration in further studies on reducing the level of this substance in meat processing. The values of hardness, gumminess and chewiness of experimental samples were higher (? ? 0.05) than those obtained for control variant. After 3 weeks of storage model products produced with egg-yolk protein addition were characterized by lower (? ? 0.05) value of chewiness than control sample. Moreover, after 24 hours there were no statistical (? ? 0.05) differences beetwen b* (yellowness) values of P1 variant meat products and control sausages. All investigated variants after 3 weeks of storage did not differ significantly within L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values. Sensory assessment showed that P1 variant of experimental products obtained the highest scores of colour, consistency and overall appearance.
BibTeX:
@article{Tril2013,
  author = {Urszula Tril and Anna M and Salejda and Grazyna Krasnowska},
  title = {Effect of egg-yolk protein addition on the characteristics of model meat products},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3},
  pages = {28--32},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/152-effect-of-egg-yolk-protein-addition-on-the-characteristics-of-model-meat-products}
}
Trzaskowski, M., Butruk, B. and Ciach, T. Hydrogel coatings for artifi cial heart implants 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 19-22 
article URL 
Abstract: Polyurethanes (PU) are nowadays one of the most widely used types of polymers for biomedical applications. Th e segmented nature of these materials enables to obtain both fl exibility and mechanical strength within the same material. However, there is a need to modify a surface of PU in order to produce highly hemocompatible materials that can be used in fabrication of permanent blood-contacting devices such as vascular implants, valves or hearts. Among many types of modifi cations, hydrogel coating appears to be very promising. Such modifi cation increases the hydrophilicity of PU which in turn causes an increase in the bio- and hemocompatibility of the material. The aim of presented study was to create a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogel coating onto a surface of polyurethane. A possibility of using a free radical polymerization reaction was investigated. Th e obtained materials were analyzed in terms of durability, swelling ratio and contact angle. Th e FTIR-ATR analysis confi rmed that polyurethane surfaces have been uccessfully coated with PVP.
BibTeX:
@article{Trzaskowski2011,
  author = {Maciej Trzaskowski and Beata Butruk and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Hydrogel coatings for artifi cial heart implants},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {19-22},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/6-hydrogel-coatings-for-artifi-cial-heart-implants}
}
Trzaskowski, M., Butruk, B. and Ciach, T. Cell outer membrane mimetic surface as a material with improved hemocompatibility 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 7-10 
article URL 
Abstract: The phenomenon of blood coagulation on the surfaces of implantable devices such as artifi cial blood vessels, valves or hearts is the major problem that has to be taken into consideration during the construction of such devices. Since the main factor that has an infl uence on clotting of blood is the surface of the material the device is made of, numerous attempts has already been undertaken to modify surfaces of existing materials in order to provide necessary protection against clot formation, very often by coating the materials with bio-active substances. Th e aim of presented study was to create a coating of phosphatidylcholine that would mimic natural cell outer membrane on the surface of polyurethane — a material already in use in construction of cardiovascular implants. Th e obtained coated materials have been evaluated with the use of FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy. Th e change in contact angle of modifi ed material was also investigated. Finally in vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed in order to examine biocompatibility of obtained material.
BibTeX:
@article{Trzaskowski2011a,
  author = {Maciej Trzaskowski and Beata Butruk and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Cell outer membrane mimetic surface as a material with improved hemocompatibility},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {7--10},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/60-cell-outer-membrane-mimetic-surface-as-a-material-with-improved-hemocompatibility}
}
Turowski, T.W. Pathways of tRNA turnover in eukaryotic cells 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 63-65 
article URL 
Abstract: Cell ability to control amount of a transfer RNA is one of the ways to regulate rate of protein synthesis. Because 80–90% dry mass of cells are proteins, the level of translation is determinant to the cell growth. Growth of cells is a key question in tumors therapy and biotechnology. tRNA turnover consist of a three pathways described in a last few years: exosome and TRAMP complex dependent pathway in nucleus, directed to hypomodifi ed or aff ected tRNA; rapid tRNA decay pathway involving two 5’–3’ exonucleases Rat1 and Xrn1, proposed to occur in nucleus and cytoplasm; stress-activated endonucleolytic cleavage to tRNA halves pathway, founded in cytoplasm with a clear role to direct regulation of translation by tRNA half-molecules inhibition
BibTeX:
@article{Turowski2011,
  author = {Tomasz Wojciech Turowski},
  title = {Pathways of tRNA turnover in eukaryotic cells},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {63--65},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/36-pathways-of-trna-turnover-in-eukaryotic-cells}
}
Tuwalska, D., nad Sławomir Wybraniec, D.S., Winterhalter, P. and Jerz, G. Spiral-coil countercurrent chromatographic separation of betanin and betanidin ethyl-esters monitored by continuous ESI-MS/MS injection and LC-ESI-MS/MS 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 21-25 
article URL 
Abstract: Betalains present in Beta vulgaris L. (Chenopodiaceae) have a high potential as natural pigments for food applications. They have been used as a substitute of synthetic dyes in processing of gelatine, strawberry yogurts, ice creams, fruits cocktails, candies and biscuits. The stability of betalains is strongly influenced by numerous factors – sugar content, and impact of light, oxygen, water activity, pH and temperature. A mixture of betacyanin mono-, di- and tri-ethyl-esters was separated by a large-volume spiral-coil countercurrent chromatography (spCCC) prototype which yielded fractions continuously off-line injected to anÂÂ ESI-MS/MS device. This method yielded a reconstituted pigment profile and finally enabled the MS-target-guided isolation procedure for the whole spCCC-experiment. The individual fractions were analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Betanin and betanidin mono-, di- and tri-ethyl-esters as well as other decarboxylated derivatives were detected in the chromatograms. The ethyl-esters of betanin were only partially fractionated, but clearly fractionated from the ethyl-esters of betanidin which will be of great value for biological evaluations.
BibTeX:
@article{Tuwalska2013,
  author = {Dorota Tuwalska and Dominika Szot nad Sławomir Wybraniec and Peter Winterhalter and Gerold Jerz},
  title = {Spiral-coil countercurrent chromatographic separation of betanin and betanidin ethyl-esters monitored by continuous ESI-MS/MS injection and LC-ESI-MS/MS},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {21--25},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/165-spiral-coil-countercurrent-chromatographic-separation-of-betanin-and-betanidin-ethyl-esters-monitored-by-continuous-esi-ms-ms-injection-and-lc-esi-ms-ms}
}
Urbanek, B., Szydełko, A. and Czajka, K. Risks of boiler operation during slagging and fouling process – a new methods for the determination of ash sintering temperatures 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(2), pp. 47-52 
article URL 
Abstract: The properties of mineral matter occurs in coal in the form of inorganic compounds leads to slagging and fouling process on boiler heating surfaces, burners and ash hopper. The deposition of ash cause many undesirable phenomena such as heat transfer deterioration, damage to internal parts of the boiler as a result of detachment of large agglomerates and finally, costly shutdowns of the boiler. Standardized method of risk assessment of agglomerates formation and sintered fly ash is determined by four melting temperatures of ash. This measurement is based on visual appraisal of ash sample deformation which is subjective and strongly depends on the experience of the person conducting the test. Especially is hard predict the first two temperatures: deformation and sintering. An article has to present three non-standardized methods for determining the sintering temperature by using physical parameters: pressure drop and minimum force of probe destruction. This type of measurement allows a quantitative way to obtain reliable and meaningful result. The experiment showed that the results of non-standard methods deviate from those set using the Leitz method. This allows to conclude that sintering processes occur at much lower temperatures and changing the shape of the initial (test method Leitz) is not the first symptom of demonstrating the melting of the ash.
BibTeX:
@article{Urbanek2013,
  author = {Bartosz Urbanek and Arkadiusz Szydełko and Krzysztof Czajka},
  title = {Risks of boiler operation during slagging and fouling process – a new methods for the determination of ash sintering temperatures},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2},
  pages = {47--52},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/160-risks-of-boiler-operation-during-slagging-and-fouling-process-a-new-methods-for-the-determination-of-ash-sintering-temperatures}
}
Wasiak, I. and Ciach, T. Preparation of silver core nanoparticles with polysaccharide shell 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 15-17 
article URL 
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to obtain silver core nanoparticles coated with dextran shell. In the described method dextran plays role of reductive and protective agent and also functionalisation ligand. Our research was aimed at nanoparticles synthesis at 37°C. It is the human body temperature, which is safe for temperature-sensitive drugs (proteins). In the presented work the time of reaction, dextran molecular weight and its chemical functionalisation was investigated. Particles were characterized by Nanosight and SEM, their UV–Vis spectroscopic absorption properties were also determined. Nanoparticles with diameter less than 95 nm with relatively narrow size distribution were obtained. Our work demonstrated that it was possible to obtain nanoparticles in 37°C without using any harmful reagents.
BibTeX:
@article{Wasiak2012,
  author = {Iga Wasiak and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Preparation of silver core nanoparticles with polysaccharide shell},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {15--17},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/87-preparation-of-silver-core-nanoparticles-with-polysaccharide-shell}
}
Wawrzkiewicz, M., Wołowicz, A., Greluk, M. and Hubicki, Z. Sunset Yellow sorption on weak base anion exchanger — kinetic and equilibrium studies 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 66-70 
article URL 
Abstract: The sorption equilibrium and kinetics of Sunset Yellow dye in aqueous solutions on the weak base anion exchange resin — Amberlite FPA51 were examined in this paper. Th e infl uences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied by the batch method. Th e amounts of dye sorbed at equilibrium changed from 9.9 to 48.7 mg/g with the increasing initial concentrations in the range 100–500 mg/L. Th e experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models of adsorption. Th e maximum monolayer capacity was 130.6 mg/g. The sorption free energy was equal to 14.6 kJ/mol and revealed the nature of the ion exchange mechanism in this system. The kinetic data were modelled using the pseudo-fi rst order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diff usion equations.
BibTeX:
@article{Wawrzkiewicz2011,
  author = {Monika Wawrzkiewicz and Anna Wołowicz and Magdalena Greluk and Zbigniew Hubicki},
  title = {Sunset Yellow sorption on weak base anion exchanger — kinetic and equilibrium studies},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {66--70},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/37-sunset-yellow-sorption-on-weak-base-anion-exchanger-kinetic-and-equilibrium-studies}
}
Wcislik, W. Modelling S235JRG2 steel load-carrying capacity and micro-damage development for static and quasi-static loads 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 58-61 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of plastic deformation and damage development in S235JRG2 steel in complex stress states and at diff erent rates of loading. Th e material Gurson Tvergaard Needleman (GTN) model was applied. Th e analysis was performed for notched bars subjected to tension. An attempt was made to investigate the impact of load conditions on the value of critical void volume fraction (fc) in the GTN model. Numerical computations carried out with the use of GTN model made it possible to identify the sites of ductile fracture initiation.
BibTeX:
@article{Wcislik2011,
  author = {Wiktor Wcislik},
  title = {Modelling S235JRG2 steel load-carrying capacity and micro-damage development for static and quasi-static loads},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {58--61},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/55-modelling-s235jrg2-steel-load-carrying-capacity-and-micro-damage-development-for-static-and-quasi-static-loads}
}
Wcisło, M. Reduction of railway bridge vibration with groundhook mass damper 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(4), pp. 53-57 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim of this research is to compare eff ectiveness of an ordinary mass damper with a more complex one equipped with an extra spring element connecting the damper mass with the ground. For both simple- and nonlinear- primary structure models and for stable load state, theoretically effi ciency of both types of dampers is just the same therefore their effi ciencies in bridge structures subjected to non-stationary load are investigated.
BibTeX:
@article{Wcislo2012,
  author = {Michał Wcisło},
  title = {Reduction of railway bridge vibration with groundhook mass damper},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {4},
  pages = {53--57},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/117-reduction-of-railway-bridge-vibration-with-groundhook-mass-damper}
}
Widodo, S., Ibrahim, A. and Hong, S. Analysis of different equations of undrained shear strength estimations using Atterberg Limits on Pontianak Soft Clay 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 46-50 
article URL 
Abstract: Many researchers have done study to estimate the value of undrained shear strength for fi ne grained soils like clay or silt. Determining of undrained shear strength and compressibility arameters in laboratory are really tedious and time consuming. Th erefore, a correlation between undrained shear strength and Atterberg limits is useful for restraint of testing number and costs. Central tendency parameters such as an average, deviation standard and coeffi cient of variation are performed to analyze the data of soft clay in Pontianak, Indonesia. Based on analysis that undrained shear strength coincides with 50 percentile of distribution data meanwhile undrained compressive strength is around twice of cohesion for testing using unconfi ned pressure. Th is relationship is the most familiar equation. Moreover, undrained shear strength using mean value is more realistic for correlation between undrained shear strength and Atterberg limits on some equations from previous findings.
BibTeX:
@article{Widodo2012,
  author = {Slamet Widodo and Abdelazim Ibrahim and Shen Hong},
  title = {Analysis of different equations of undrained shear strength estimations using Atterberg Limits on Pontianak Soft Clay},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {46--50},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/104-analysis-of-different-equations-of-undrained-shear-strength-estimations-using-atterberg-limits-on-pontianak-soft-clay}
}
Wielgus, M. Amplitude demodulation of interferometric signals with a 2D Hilbert transform 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 8-11 
article URL 
Abstract: The Hilbert transform and the analytic signal are widely known tools of 1D signal pro cessing. Th ey are useful for many applications, such as AM-FM demodulation or edge detection. Developing the multidimensional generalization of this method is particularly important for the purposes of image processing. Unfortunately, it is not obvious how to generalize the transform, keeping its essential properties. In this paper I survey some ideas: basic approaches with spectral masks imitating 1D signum function, the spiral phase operator method and the method involving quaternionic Fourier transform. I present and compare how these algorithms are useful for the amplitude demodulation of typical interferometric images.
BibTeX:
@article{Wielgus2011,
  author = {Maciej Wielgus},
  title = {Amplitude demodulation of interferometric signals with a 2D Hilbert transform},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {8-11},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/3-amplitude-demodulation-of-interferometric-signals-with-a-2d-hilbert-transform}
}
Wierzbicka, A.M. Architecture of places of remembrance as a form of structuring collective experience based on the example of Polish contemporary places of remembrance 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(3), pp. 51-55 
article URL 
Abstract: The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate issues concerning places of remembrance, paying special attention to the elements which create meaning and structure collective experience. Th e analysis will be conducted not only on the level of architectural materials but the current knowledge about psychology of perception (narrative perception) will also be included. Another aim of the presentation is to assess Polish current architectural projects against the background of international accomplishments. Projects implemented by students from Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Religious and Monumental Architecture under the management of professor Konrad Kucza-Kuczyński will be presented. The resentation is intended for young scientists of diff erent branches, not only those of architecture and construction. The presentation constitutes part of post-doctoral paper written under Dean’s Grant at the Faculty of Architecture at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011
BibTeX:
@article{Wierzbick2012,
  author = {Anna Mria Wierzbicka},
  title = {Architecture of places of remembrance as a form of structuring collective experience based on the example of Polish contemporary places of remembrance},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {51--55},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/105-architecture-of-places-of-remembrance-as-a-form-of-structuring-collective-experience-based-on-the-example-of-polish-contemporary-places-of-remembrance}
}
Wierzbicka, A.M. Symbol as a versatile language of communication in Polish contemporary sacred architecture 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 81-85 
article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{Wierzbick2011,
  author = {Anna Maria Wierzbicka},
  title = {Symbol as a versatile language of communication in Polish contemporary sacred architecture},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {81--85},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/41-symbol-as-a-versatile-language-of-communication-in-polish-contemporary-sacred-architecture}
}
Wilczyński, K.J. Polymer Single Screw Extrusion with Metered Feeding 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 51-54 
article URL 
Abstract: The state-of-the-art is presented for composite modeling of single screw extrusion of polymeric materials. The flood mode of feeding and metered mode of feeding are considered. A new inverse approach of composite modeling for metered fed single screw extrusion is discussed. Some experimental and theoretical results of the study are presented. Th e polymer melting behaviour and degree of fi lling of the screw channel during the process, as well as the pressure and temperature development are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Wilczynski2011,
  author = {Krzysztof Jan Wilczyński},
  title = {Polymer Single Screw Extrusion with Metered Feeding},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {51-54},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/13-polymer-single-screw-extrusion-with-metered-feeding}
}
Winiarski, J. and Szczygieł, B. Physico-mechanical properties of Ti-containing chromium-free conversion coatings on zinc coated steel 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 27-30 
article URL 
Abstract: This work aims at physico-mechanical properties of the Ti-containing chromium-free conversion coatings on zinc coated steel. Th e wear resistance of the whole conversion coating/zinc coating system depends on the deposition time of these coatings. As the duration of the deposition of conversion coatings containing titanium increases, the wear resistance of the samples decreases. Th e reason for this deterioration in wear resistance is likely worse adhesion of these coatings obtained at longer deposition times. Th e best adhesion to the zinc substrate posses coatings deposited for 20 s.
BibTeX:
@article{Winiarski2011,
  author = {Juliusz Winiarski and Bogdan Szczygieł},
  title = {Physico-mechanical properties of Ti-containing chromium-free conversion coatings on zinc coated steel},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {27--30},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/63-physico-mechanical-properties-of-ti-containing-chromium-free-conversion-coatings-on-zinc-coated-steel}
}
Wiszniewski, S. and Dylak, A. Mechatronics and selected issues of the linear servo motors 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 33-37 
article URL 
Abstract: The paper presents state–of–the–art in the mechatronics area, describes the comprehensive problems and trends of future development. Some selected issues concerning mechatronic servodrives are discussed, among which attention is paid to gearless drives with linear motors both asynchronous and synchronous and with high-energy permanent magnets. Th en the results of steady-state and transient analysis are reported, and positive and negative features of both type of motors are displayed. In the summary the conclusions are formulated and the Authors have stated that currently the mechatronics area covers various spheres of industry and socio-existential human life.
BibTeX:
@article{Wiszniewski2012,
  author = {Sebastian Wiszniewski and Andrzej Dylak},
  title = {Mechatronics and selected issues of the linear servo motors},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {33--37},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/76-mechatronics-and-selected-issues-of-the-linear-servo-motors}
}
Wojasinski, M., Faliszewski, K. and Ciach, T. Electrospinning Production of PLLA Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 9-15 
article URL 
Abstract: Nonwoven fibrous mats were produced in the process of solution electrospinning. Polymeric fibres generated in this process consist of poly(L-lactic) acid (PLLA), biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Produced fibrous mats were examined by scanning electron microscopy and additionally degradation rate of fibrous material was investigated. Obtained fibres exhibit porous surface and fibre diameter varied from 200 nm to 1,2 ?m, depending on the process parameters. Low degradation rate of scaffold material was designed for long-term scaffold usage. The influence of solvent type and solution concentration as well as the solution flow rate, applied voltage and the setup geometry on the fibres morphology and diameter were examined and presented. The influence of polymer concentration on the solution viscosity was also evaluated. Further, the degradation rate of obtained fibres was investigated, as well as the influence of degradation process on surrounding environment. Materials produced in electrospinning process have potential application as long-term biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering, especially in bone tissue, vascular tissue or cartilage tissue engineering.
BibTeX:
@article{Wojasinski2013,
  author = {Michał Wojasinski and Krzysztof Faliszewski and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Electrospinning Production of PLLA Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9--15},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/139-electrospinning-production-of-plla-fibrous-scaffolds-for-tissue-engineering}
}
Wójcik, G. and Hubicki, Z. Reduction of chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by using the solvent impregnated resin 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 41-43 
article URL 
Abstract: The solvent impregnated resins enables eff ective recovery of microquantities of chromium(VI) ions from wastewaters. The solvent impregnated resin (SIR) Amberlite XAD 7 HP as polymer matrix has been prepared by the wet-impregnation technique. Aliquat 336 was employed as the extractant and acetone as the solvents for impregnation. Sorption of chromium(VI) was investigated in the batch process . Sorption of chromium(VI) was studied in the pH range from 1.5 to 7. It was stated that sorption of chromium(VI) ions depends on acidity of solution. Th e values of recovery factors of chromium(VI) are higher at low pH than in neutral solution. Th e speciation of chromium was investigated in the studied pH range. Reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III) under acidic conditions was observed. Chromium was determined by using the spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectroscopy methods. Both methods permit to observe changing of valence of chromium(III) and (VI) oxidation states. Th e prepared SIR is a new sorbent used for recovery of chromium ions from wastewaters.
BibTeX:
@article{Wojcik2011a,
  author = {Grzegorz Wójcik and Zbigniew Hubicki},
  title = {Reduction of chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by using the solvent impregnated resin},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {41--43},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/51-reduction-of-chromium-vi-ions-from-aqueous-solutions-by-using-the-solvent-impregnated-resin}
}
Wójcik, G., Hubicki, Z. and Górska, M. Recovery of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) ions from chloride solutions on the solvent impregnated resin (SIR) — Dowex Optipore L493 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 38-40 
article URL 
Abstract: The method described in this paper using Dowex Optipore L493 for removal of gold (III), palladium (II), and platinum (IV) ions from hydrochloric solutions is found eff ective for separation of gold, palladium and platinum. Th ere were carried out laboratory studies of selective removal of platinum (IV), gold (III) and palladium (II) microquantities from 0.1–6 M hydrochloric on the solvent impregnated highly cross-linked styrenic polymer, Dowex Optipore L493 using Cyanex 301. In these experiments the recovery factors % R of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) depending on phases contact time were obtained. Th e gold, palladium and platinum concentrations were determined by the AAS method.
BibTeX:
@article{Wojcik2011,
  author = {Grzegorz Wójcik and Zbigniew Hubicki and Magdalena Górska},
  title = {Recovery of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) ions from chloride solutions on the solvent impregnated resin (SIR) — Dowex Optipore L493},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {38--40},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/50-recovery-of-gold-iii-palladium-ii-and-platinum-iv-ions-from-chloride-solutions-on-the-solvent-impregnated-resin-sir-dowex-optipore-l493}
}
Wójtowicz, W. Biometric watermarking for security enhancement in digital images 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(4), pp. 7-11 
article URL 
Abstract: In this paper some preliminary investigation on combination of watermarking technique with biometric data to increase security of digital images in case of medical images is proposed. Performance of watermarking algorithm, based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, that incorporates biometric watermark is elaborated. The frequency domain were chosen as it is proven, that this domain provides better robustness against attacks and leads to less perceptibility of an embedded watermark. To assure confidentiality of patient data their hand geometry features are embedded instead of patient’s name. Proposed system is evaluated by measuring the similarity between embedded and extracted biometric codes.
BibTeX:
@article{Wojtowicz2013,
  author = {Wioletta Wójtowicz},
  title = {Biometric watermarking for security enhancement in digital images},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {7--11},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/162-biometric-watermarking-for-security-enhancement-in-digital-images}
}
Wołowicz, A., Hubicki, Z. and Greluk, M. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of palladium(II) ions sorption onto Dowex resins 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(2), pp. 71-75 
article URL 
Abstract: Palladium(II) sorption was studied in hydrochloric acid solutions with sodium chloride addition onto Dowex MSA-1 and Dowex MSA-2 resins by means of the static method. Th e dependence between the amount of palladium(II) ions sorbed at time tin a disequilibrium state (qt) as well as the sorption capacities (qe) and phases contact time were obtained. Th e results were applied in kinetic studies using the pseudo-fi rst (Lagergren equation) and pseudo-second order kinetic equations (linear form of Blanchard equation proposed by Ho, PSO). Moreover, the equilibrium studies were caried out at ambient temperature and fi tted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Th e AFM pictures of the surface of anion exchange resins before and after the loading process were also recorded. Both resins exhibit high selectivity towards palladium(II) ions. Th e sorption capacities are in the range 7–10 mg/g for both resins under discussion in all examined solutions. Th e pseudo-second order kinetic equation and the Langmuir isotherm show the best fi t with the experimental data.
BibTeX:
@article{Wolowicz2011,
  author = {Anna Wołowicz and Zbigniew Hubicki and Magdalena Greluk},
  title = {Equilibrium and kinetic studies of palladium(II) ions sorption onto Dowex resins},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {71--75},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/38-equilibrium-and-kinetic-studies-of-palladium-ii-ions-sorption-onto-dowex-resins}
}
Wołowicz, A., Hubicki, Z., Greluk, M. and Wawrzkiewicz, M. Comparison of Varion resins selectivity towards palladium(II) ions in hydrochloric acid solutions with sodium chloride addition 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 34-37 
article URL 
Abstract: Ion exchange is Ion exchange is found more and more signifi cant importance in metal processing, and hydrometallurgy in general, not only for the removal of impurities but also for the reconcentration process of metal ions. Th e ion exchange method (dynamic method) was applied in the preconcentration of palladium(II) ions from the chloride solutions with sodium chloride addition. Varion resins such as the strongly basic anion exchange resins: Varion ADM and Varion ATM and the weakly basic anion exchange resin Varion ADAM were taken into account during the sorption process. Th e selectivity series were obtained based on the breakthrough curves of palladium(II) ions determined by means of dynamic method. Moreover, the distribution coeffi cients: weight and bed as well as the working anion exchange capacities were calculated. From the Varion resins — Varion ADAM is the most promising in the preconcentration of Pd(II).
BibTeX:
@article{Wolowicz2011a,
  author = {Anna Wołowicz and Zbigniew Hubicki and Magdalena Greluk and Monika Wawrzkiewicz},
  title = {Comparison of Varion resins selectivity towards palladium(II) ions in hydrochloric acid solutions with sodium chloride addition},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {34--37},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/49-comparison-of-varion-resins-selectivity-towards-palladium-ii-ions-in-hydrochloric-acid-solutions-with-sodium-chloride-addition}
}
Yarka, N., Maik, V. and Sysyuk, V. Operating properties of photopolymer stamps for hot foil stamping 2013 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 4(1), pp. 30-37 
article URL 
Abstract: Hot foil stamping of printed products is very popular in postpress processes. Use of photopolymer materials for stamps producing is a well known process. This work provides operating properties (hardness, deformation and thermophysical properties, wear resistance) research of novel photopolymer materials for direct laser engraving of stamps for hot foil stamping. Research results comparison with requirements to photopolymer materials for printing plates and stamps made it possible to provide a conclusion about suitability of the researched materials for stamps producing.
BibTeX:
@article{Yarka2013,
  author = {Nataliya Yarka and Volodymyr Maik and Valentyna Sysyuk},
  title = {Operating properties of photopolymer stamps for hot foil stamping},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {30--37},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/142-operating-properties-of-photopolymer-stamps-for-hot-foil-stamping}
}
Zagirskyi, A., Ivashchenco, I. and Panarin, V. Obtaining biocompatibile protective coatings on titanium alloys to artificial medical instrument 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 12-14 
article URL 
Abstract: Titanium is a metal that has been used in various and varied medical applications for about 40 years. Titanium and its alloys have excellent corrosion resistance, in many aqueous media, and assure their excellent biocompatibility. A variety of surface modifi cation processes have been proposed for titanium alloys. Th e new method of creation biocompatible layers on titanium-aluminium alloys that we want to investigate is based on the use of ascending diff usion eff ect of solute atoms at sputtering of metal-solvent surface by inert gases ions. Using theoretical calculations technique described, it is possible to choose modes for carrying out ion-plasma processing aimed at getting the eff ect of ascending diff usion in titanium-aluminium alloy.
BibTeX:
@article{Zagirskyi2011,
  author = {Anton Zagirskyi and Ievgen Ivashchenco and Valentin Panarin},
  title = {Obtaining biocompatibile protective coatings on titanium alloys to artificial medical instrument},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {12--14},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/44-obtaining-biocompatibile-protective-coatings-on-titanium-alloys-to-artifi-cial-medical-instrument}
}
Zakharchuk, A. Bionics in architecture 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(2), pp. 50-53 
article URL 
Abstract: The usage of forming principles of wild life got the new quality and received a name of architectural and bionic process and became one of the trends of architecture in the world architectural practice for the last 40 years. Bionics is an innovative architectural style that took all the best from nature: relief outlines and forms. It can be called architecture of future and its aim is synthesis of nature and modern technologies.
BibTeX:
@article{Zakharchuk2012,
  author = {Andrzej Zakharchuk},
  title = {Bionics in architecture},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {50--53},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/93-bionics-in-architecture}
}
Zbigniew Szczepański M. Cieszko, P.G.G.Z. Application of Micro Computer Tomography to Identifi cation of Pore Structure Parameters of Porous Materials 2010 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 1(1), pp. 90-91 
article URL 
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to apply the scans of microscopic geometry of human bones obtained by Micro Computer Tomography method to identifi cation of their macroscopic pore structure parameters: volume porosity, permeability and tortuosity of pores and skeleton. These parameters, except the volume porosity, have been determined by simulations of microscopic processes of viscous fl uid fl ow and electrical current passage through virtual models of bones samples. The simulations wave performed using the COMSOL's Multiphysics environment assigned for solution of boundary value problems described by partial diff erential equations, by use of the fi nite element method.
BibTeX:
@article{Szczepanski2010,
  author = {Zbigniew Szczepański, M. Cieszko, Paweł‚ Gadzała, G. Zych},
  title = {Application of Micro Computer Tomography to Identifi cation of Pore Structure Parameters of Porous Materials},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {90-91},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/136-application-of-micro-computer-tomography-to-identifi-cation-of-pore-structure-parameters-of-porous-materials}
}
Ziętek, P. Improved Method for TDOA Estimation with Chirp Signals 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 32-35 
article URL 
Abstract: This paper introduces an improved method for TDOA estimation. Th e time-diff erence measurement is performed by taking an advantage of the properties of linear frequency modulation signals. According to the performed simulations and experiment results, the proposed TDOA estimation scheme shows good accuracy and thus has the potential to be used in precise indoor location applications
BibTeX:
@article{Ziatek2011,
  author = {Paweł Ziętek},
  title = {Improved Method for TDOA Estimation with Chirp Signals},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {32-35},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/9-improved-method-for-tdoa-estimation-with-chirp-signals}
}
Ziętek, P.A., Butruk, B. and Ciach, T. Artificial heart: Hydrophobic coating to make it more natural 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(3), pp. 15-19 
article URL 
Abstract: Polyurethanes are biocompatible materials commonly used in medical applications, mainly as coatings for vascular grafts and artifi cial hearts. Th ere are many methods to increase hemocompatibility of polyurethane surfaces. Presented study was undertaken to obtain hydrophobic polyurethane coatings by silicone and perfl uorocarbohydrate modifi cation. Th e aim of this work was to obtain smooth and homogenous coatings, as porous materials are likely to cause blood coagulation. Surface analysis (IR spectroscopy and scanning acoustic microscopy) revealed that the applied method allows to modify polyurethane surface successfully. An increase in material hydrophobicity was confi rmed contact angle measurement.
BibTeX:
@article{Zietek2011,
  author = {Paulina Anna Ziętek and Beata Butruk and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Artificial heart: Hydrophobic coating to make it more natural},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {15--19},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/45-artifi-cial-heart-hydrophobic-coating-to-make-it-more-natural}
}
Ziętek, P., Butruk, B. and Ciach, T. Fabrication of novel material with athrombogenic potential: Immobilization of peptides on polyurethane surface 2012 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 3(1), pp. 38-41 
article URL 
Abstract: Presented study was undertaken to fabricate a hemocompatible material that could be a potential candidate for use in fabrication of blood-contacting devices, e.g. circulatory support devices, vessel grafts, heart valves. Th e fi nal material could be used as a scaff old for endothelial cell growth and initiate in situ endothelialisation. Th e newest and most promising strategy in material endothelialization involves introduction of short peptide sequences that can selectively address one particular type of cell adhesion receptors and promote cell adhesion. Th us, the aim of work was to elaborate a method of immobilizing peptides specific for integrins onto polymer substrate.
BibTeX:
@article{Zietek2012,
  author = {Paulina Ziętek and Beata Butruk and Tomasz Ciach},
  title = {Fabrication of novel material with athrombogenic potential: Immobilization of peptides on polyurethane surface},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {38--41},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/77-fabrication-of-novel-material-with-athrombogenic-potential-immobilization-of-peptides-on-polyurethane-surface}
}
Ziółkowska, K., Chudy, M., Dybko, A. and Brzózka, Z. Novel designs and technologies for cell engineering 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(4), pp. 54-60 
article URL 
Abstract: Microfl uidic devices, such as lab-on-a-chip systems, are highly advantageous for cell engineering and cell based assays. It is a particularly useful approach for development of the in vitro cellular systems mimicking the in vivo environment. In this paper, a novel lab-on-a-chip device for three-dimensional human cell culture and anticancer drug testing is presented. Cells were cultured as Multicellular Tumor Spheroids (MCTS) — the best cancer tumor model developed so far. Diff erent designs were tested and novel technique of microfabrication in poly(dimethylsiloxane) was developed. MCTS were cultured in a system of polymeric microwells, with the network of microfl uidic channels for culture medium fl ow. Design included optimal shear stress and proper nutrients supply for cultured cells. Final design provided MCTS culture for four weeks with the homeostasis-like state achievement, which is characteristic for the in vivo situation.
BibTeX:
@article{Ziolkowska2011a,
  author = {Karina Ziółkowska and Michał Chudy and Artur Dybko and Zbigniew Brzózka},
  title = {Novel designs and technologies for cell engineering},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {54--60},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/68-novel-designs-and-technologies-for-cell-engineering}
}
Zofia Maria Piętak, Y.P. Mathematical modelling and description of friction and temperature phenomena in inking unit of the offset printing machine 2011 Challenges of Modern Technology
Vol. 2(1), pp. 41-44 
article URL 
Abstract: In this paper a proposition of mathematical formula of the temperature distribution caused by friction phenomena in the cylinder/cylinder contact in the inking unit of the off set printing machine is presented. In the inking unit there are pairs of wheeling inking rollers, one of which is made of steel and the second one has got a rubber layer outside. Th e steel roller besides the circular motion moves reciprocating along the cylinder pivot. Th e measurements made during the tests in the various research centres have shown that the inking rollers’ temperature increases during the work of the off set printing machine. Some derivative heat equations are applied to the case study and are solved.
BibTeX:
@article{Piatek2011,
  author = {Zofia Maria Piętak, Yuriy Pyryev},
  title = {Mathematical modelling and description of friction and temperature phenomena in inking unit of the offset printing machine},
  journal = {Challenges of Modern Technology},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {41-44},
  url = {http://www.journal.young-scientists.eu/index.php/isuues/file/11-mathematical-modelling-and-description-of-friction-and-temperature-phenomena-in-inking-unit-of-the-offset-printing-machine}
}